Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 314395, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/314395
Research Article

Inhibitory Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation Induced by PDGF-BB Is Involved in Nitric Oxide Formation

1Department of Pharmacology of Zunyi Medical College and the Key Laboratory of Basic Pharmacology of Guizhou, Zunyi 563003, China
2Department of Pharmacology, Mindong Medical School, 65 Manchun Road, Fujian, Fuan, 355017, China

Received 12 October 2011; Accepted 17 December 2011

Academic Editor: Youn Chul Kim

Copyright © 2012 Jing Huang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Hin, Z. Liu, F. Li et al., “Ginsenoside Rg1 enhances angiogenesis and amelioeates ventricular remodeling in a rat model of myocardial infarction,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 363–375, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. J. Deng, X. T. Lv, Q. Wu, and X. N. Huang, “Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibits rat left ventricular hypertrophy induced by abdominal aorta coarctation: involvement of calcineurin and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalings,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 608, no. 1–3, pp. 42–47, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Zhu, L. Wu, C. R. Li et al., “Ginsenoside Rg1 protects rat cardiomyocyte from hypoxia/reoxygenation oxidative injury via antioxidant and intracellular calcium homeostasis,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 117–124, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Z. C. Ma, Y. Gao, Y. G. Wang, H. L. Tan, C. R. Xiao, and S. Q. Wang, “Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1000–1006, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. S. Zhang and S. Q. Wang, “Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)- induced human arterial smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) proliferation,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1471–1481, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. W. Radomski, R. M. J. Palmer, and S. Moncada, “Endogenous nitric oxide inhibits human platelet adhesion to vascular endothelium,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8567, pp. 1057–1058, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Kubes, M. Suzuki, and D. N. Granger, “Nitric oxide: an endogenous modulator of leukocyte adhesion,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 4651–4655, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. Tzeng, Y. M. Kim, B. R. Pitt, A. Lizonova, I. Kovesdi, and T. R. Billiar, “Adenoviral transfer of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene blocks endothelial cell apoptosis,” Journal of Surgery, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 255–263, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Kibbe, T. Billiar, and E. Tzeng, “Inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular injury,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 650–657, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. D. Tsihlis, C. S. Oustwani, A. K. Vavra et al., “Nitric oxide inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia by increasing the ubiquitination and degradation of ubch10,” Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 60, no. 1-2, pp. 89–97, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. M. R. Kapadia, L. W. Chow, N. D. Tsihlis et al., “Nitric oxide and nanotechnology: a novel approach to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 173–182, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. M. Yu, L. M. Hung, and C. C. Lin, “cGMP-elevating agents suppress proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the activation of epidermal growth factor signaling pathway,” Circulation, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 1269–1277, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. J. Boerth, N. B. Dey, T. L. Cornwell, and T. M. Lincoln, “Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase regulates vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype,” Journal of Vascular Research, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 245–259, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. L. Cornwell, E. Arnold, N. J. Boerth, and T. M. Lincoln, “Inhibition of smooth muscle cell growth by nitric oxide and activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase by cGMP,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 267, no. 5, pp. C1405–C1413, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Ishida, T. Sasaguri, C. Kosaka, H. Nojima, and J. Ogata, “Induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Sdi1/Cip1/Waf1) by nitric oxide-generating vasodilator in vascular smooth muscle cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 15, pp. 10050–10057, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Y. Kang, V. B. Schini-Kerth, and N. D. Kim, “Ginsenosides of the protopanaxatriol group cause endothelium-dependent relaxation in the rat aorta,” Life Sciences, vol. 56, no. 19, pp. 1577–1586, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. W. Leung, Y. K. Cheng, N. K. Mak, K. K. C. Chan, T. P. David Fan, and R. N. S. Wong, “Signaling pathway of ginsenoside-Rg1 leading to nitric oxide production in endothelial cells,” FEBS Letters, vol. 580, no. 13, pp. 3211–3216, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. W. Han and H. Kim, “Ginsenosides stimulate endogenous production of nitric oxide in rat kidney,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 573–580, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Chai, W. Zhou, P. Lin, A. Lumsden, Q. Yao, and C. Chen, “Ginsenosides block HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir-induced vascular dysfunction of porcine coronary arteries,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 288, no. 6, pp. H2965–H2971, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. X. Wang, S. Chu, T. Qian, J. Chen, and J. Zhang, “Ginsenoside Rg1 improves male copulatory behavior via nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 7, no. 2, part 1, pp. 743–750, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Deng, Y. W. Wang, W. M. Chen, Q. Wu, and X. N. Huang, “Role of nitric oxide in ginsenoside Rg1-induced protection against left ventricular hypertrophy produced by abdominal aorta coarctation in rats,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 631–635, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Li, Q. Wu, J. S. Shi et al., “Effects of protopine on intracellular calcium and the PKC activity of rat aorta smooth muscle,” Acta Physiologica Sinica, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 240–246, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  23. R. C. Braun-Dullaeus, M. J. Mann, and V. J. Dzau, “Cell cycle progression: new therapeutic target for vascular proliferative disease,” Circulation, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 82–89, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. V. Sriram and C. Patterson, “Cell cycle in vasculoproliferative diseases potential interventions and routes of delivery,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 19, pp. 2414–2419, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. A. Ferns, E. W. Raines, K. H. Sprugel, A. S. Motani, M. A. Reidy, and R. Ross, “Inhibition of neointimal smooth muscle accumulation after angioplasty by an antibody to PDGF,” Science, vol. 253, no. 5024, pp. 1129–1132, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Ross, “The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a perspective for the 1990s,” Nature, vol. 362, no. 6423, pp. 801–809, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Seger and E. G. Krebs, “The MAPK signaling cascade,” FASEB Journal, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 726–735, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. L. Pelech and J. S. Sanghera, “Mitogen-activated protein kinases: versatile transducers for cell signaling,” Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 233–238, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. J. Pazin and L. T. Williams, “Triggering signaling cascades by receptor tyrosine kinases,” Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 374–378, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. A. Moro, R. J. Russell, S. Cellek et al., “cGMP mediates the vascular and platelet actions of nitric oxide: confirmation using an inhibitor of the soluble guanylyl cyclase,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 1480–1485, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Sandirasegarane and J. Diamond, “The nitric oxide donors, SNAP and DEA/NO, exert a negative inotropic effect in rat cardiomyocytes which is independent of cyclic GMP elevation,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 799–808, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. S. Chan, P. Y. Yue, N. K. Mak, and R. N. S. Wong, “Role of microRNA-214 in ginsenoside-Rg1-induced angiogenesis,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 370–377, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Y. Jeremy, D. Rowe, A. M. Emsley, and A. C. Newby, “Nitric oxide and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 580–594, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y. F. Zhang, X. J. Fan, X. Li et al., “Ginsenoside Rg1 protects neurons from hypoxic-ischemic injury possibly by inhibiting Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptors and L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 586, no. 1–3, pp. 90–99, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. Shukla, J. Y. Jeremy, P. Nicholl, B. Krijgsman, G. Stansby, and G. Hamilton, “Short-term exposure to low concentrations of thapsigargin inhibits replication of cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 325–330, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus