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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 349209, 8 pages
Research Article

Aquatic Exercise Is Effective in Improving Exercise Performance in Patients with Heart Failure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Mailbox 455, 405 35 Gothenburg, Sweden
2Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Department, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, 413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden
3Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Mailbox 100, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden

Received 14 October 2011; Revised 22 January 2012; Accepted 23 January 2012

Academic Editor: Myeong Soo Lee

Copyright © 2012 Cider Åsa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Peak oxygen uptake ( ) and muscle function are more decreased in patients with a combination of chronic heart failure (CHF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) compared to patients with only one of the conditions. Further, patients with 2DM have peripheral complications that hamper many types of conventional exercises. Aim. To evaluate the efficacy and applicability of eight-week aquatic exercise in patients with the combination of CHF and 2DM. Methods. Twenty patients (four women) with both CHF and 2DM (age , NYHA II-III) were randomly assigned to either aquatic exercise or a control group. The patients exercised for 45 minutes 3 times/week in 33–34°C, swimming pool. Results. The training programme was well tolerated. Work rate ( versus  watt, ) and ( versus mL·kg−1·min−1, ) and walking capacity ( ) increased significantly in the training group. Muscle function was also significantly improved and Hba1c decreased significantly ( ) during training, while fasting glucose, insulin, c-peptide, and lipids were unchanged . Training also increased vitality measured by SF-36 significantly ( ). Conclusion. Aquatic exercise could be used to improve exercise capacity and muscle function in patients with the combination of CHF and 2DM.