Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 350125, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/350125
Research Article

55-Week Treatment of Mice with the Unani and Ayurvedic Medicine Pomegranate Flower Ameliorates Ageing-Associated Insulin Resistance and Skin Abnormalities

1Division of Metabolism, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, 1 Yixueyuan Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016, China
2Department of Pharmacology, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006, China
3Disease State Management Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
4Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto 602-8136, Japan
5Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia

Received 14 August 2011; Revised 22 September 2011; Accepted 29 September 2011

Academic Editor: Yoshiyuki Kimura

Copyright © 2012 Jianwei Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Curtis, B. J. Geesaman, and P. S. DiStefano, “Ageing and metabolism: drug discovery opportunities,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 569–580, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Paolisso, M. R. Tagliamonte, M. R. Rizzo, and D. Giugliano, “Advancing age and insulin resistance: new facts about an ancient history,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 758–769, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Taubes, “Prosperity's plague,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5938, pp. 256–260, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. J. Raine-Fenning, M. P. Brincat, and Y. Muscat-Baron, “Skin aging and menopause: implications for treatment,” American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 371–378, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. I. P. Torra, G. Chinetti, C. Duval, J. C. Fruchart, and B. Staels, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: from transcriptional control to clinical practice,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 245–254, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. M. Evans, G. D. Barish, and Y. X. Wang, “PPARs and the complex journey to obesity,” Nature Medicine, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 355–361, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Michalik and W. Wahli, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in skin health, repair and disease,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1771, no. 8, pp. 991–998, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. I. Jurjani, Zakheera-Khwarzam-Shahi, Munshi Nawal Kishore, Lucknow, India, 1878.
  9. A. I. A. Majoosi, Kamilussanah, Munshi Nawal Kishore, Lucknow, India, 1889.
  10. S. Z. Li, Compendian of Materia Medica, vol. 1578, People's Health Press, Beijing, China, 1982.
  11. Y. Li, Y. Qi, T. H. W. Huang, J. Yamahara, and B. D. Roufogalis, “Pomegranate flower: a unique traditional antidiabetic medicine with dual PPAR-α/-γ activator properties,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 10–17, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. H. W. Huang, G. Peng, B. P. Kota et al., “Anti-diabetic action of punica granatum flower extract: activation of PPAR-γ and identification of an active component,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 207, no. 2, pp. 160–169, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. H. W. Huang, G. Peng, B. P. Kota et al., “Pomegranate flower improves cardiac lipid metabolism in a diabetic rat model: role of lowering circulating lipids,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 145, no. 6, pp. 767–774, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Y. Li, S. Wen, B. P. Kota et al., “Punica granatum flower extract, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor, improves postprandial hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 239–244, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Khateeb, A. Gantman, A. J. Kreitenberg, M. Aviram, and B. Fuhrman, “Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) expression in hepatocytes is upregulated by pomegranate polyphenols: a role for PPAR-γ pathway,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 208, no. 1, pp. 119–125, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M.-Y. Kuo, H.-C. Ou, W.-J. Lee et al., “Ellagic acid inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL)-induced metalloproteinase (MMP) expression by modulating the protein kinase C-α/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor γ/nuclear factor-κB (PKC-α/ERK/PPAR- γ/NF-κB) signaling pathway in endothelial cells,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 5100–5108, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. H. K. Lee, G. W. Nam, S. H. Kim, and S. H. Lee, “Phytocomponents of triterpenoids, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, regulated differently the processing of epidermal keratinocytes via PPAR-α pathway,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 66–73, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. W. Lim, S. P. Hong, S. W. Jeong et al., “Simultaneous effect of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid on epidermal permeability barrier function and epidermal keratinocyte differentiation via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α,” Journal of Dermatology, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 625–634, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. A. Neuschwander-Tetri, “Hepatic lipotoxicity and the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: the central role of nontriglyceride fatty acid metabolites,” Hepatology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 774–788, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Zhao, Y. Li, J. Wang et al., “Azilsartan treatment improves insulin sensitivity in obese spontaneously hypertensive Koletsky rats,” Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1123–1129, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. Z. T. Bloomgarden, “Obesity and diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1584–1590, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. P. St-Onge, I. Janssen, and S. B. Heymsfield, “Metabolic syndrome in normal-weight Americans: new definition of the metabolically obese, normal-weight individual,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 2222–2228, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. S. Freedland, “Role of a critical visceral adipose tissue threshold (CVATT) in metabolic syndrome: implications for controlling dietary carbohydrates: a review,” Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 12, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. W. C. Chumlea, R. N. Baumgartner, P. J. Garry, R. L. Rhyne, C. Nicholson, and S. Wayne, “Fat distribution and blood lipids in a sample of healthy elderly people,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 125–133, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  25. R. S. Schwartz, W. P. Shuman, V. L. Bradbury et al., “Body fat distribution in healthy young and older men,” Journals of Gerontology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. M181–M185, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Bouchard, J. P. Despres, and P. Mauriege, “Genetic and nongenetic determinants of regional fat distribution,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 72–93, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. W. Rowe, K. L. Minaker, J. A. Pallotta, and J. S. Flier, “Characterization of the insulin resistance of aging,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 1581–1587, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. W. M. Kohrt, J. P. Kirwan, M. A. Staten, R. E. Bourey, D. S. King, and J. O. Holloszy, “Insulin resistance in aging is related to abdominal obesity,” Diabetes, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 273–281, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. T. Cefalu, Z. Q. Wang, S. Werbel et al., “Contribution of visceral fat mass to the insulin resistance of aging,” Metabolism, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 954–959, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. J. Larsen, P. B. Jensen, R. V. Sørensen et al., “Differential influences of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorsγ and -α on food intake and energy homeostasis,” Diabetes, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 2249–2259, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. M. M. Haluzik, Z. Lacinova, M. Dolinkova et al., “Improvement of insulin sensitivity after peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist treatment is accompanied by paradoxical increase of circulating resistin levels,” Endocrinology, vol. 147, no. 9, pp. 4517–4524, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Berthiaume, H. Sell, J. Lalonde et al., “Actions of PPARγ agonism on adipose tissue remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and lipemia in absence of glucocorticoids,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 287, no. 5, pp. R1116–R1123, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Y. C. Hwang, E. Y. Lee, W. J. Lee et al., “Effects of rosiglitazone on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus patients,” Metabolism, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 479–487, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Michalik, B. Desvergne, N. S. Tan et al., “Impaired skin wound healing in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α and PPARβ mutant mice,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 154, no. 4, pp. 799–814, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Westergaard, J. Henningsen, M. L. Svendsen et al., “Modulation of keratinocyte gene expression and differentiation by PPAR-selective ligands and tetradecylthioacetic acid,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 702–712, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Rivier, I. Safonova, P. Lebrun, C. E. M. Griffiths, G. Ailhaud, and S. Michel, “Differential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtypes during the differentiation of human keratinocytes,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 1116–1121, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Rivier, I. Castiel, I. Safonova, G. Ailhaud, and S. Michel, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α enhances lipid metabolism in a skin equivalent model,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 681–687, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus