Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 373219, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/373219
Review Article

Antitumor Activities of Kushen: Literature Review

1Key Laboratory of Liver and Kidney Diseases, Institute of Liver Diseases, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 528 Zhangheng Road, Pudong New Area, Shanghai 201203, China
2Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 528 Zhangheng Road, Pudong New Area, Shanghai 201203, China
3E-institute of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission, Shanghai 201203, China
4Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang 100032, China
5School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 201203, China

Received 4 January 2012; Revised 30 May 2012; Accepted 7 June 2012

Academic Editor: Francesca Borrelli

Copyright © 2012 Mingyu Sun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Sophora flavescens,” in Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, F. G. Sun and X. Y. Sun, Eds., p. 59, Scientific and Technical Documents Publishing House, 1st edition, 1999.
  2. Sophora flavescens,” in Zhonghua Bencao, vol. 4, pp. 634–643, Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1st edition, 1999.
  3. Y. Wang, “Research progress on chemical constituents, preparative separation and quality of Sophora flavescens,” Chinese Traditional Patent Medicine, vol. 19, pp. 39–41, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  4. M. Sun, J. Han, J. Duan et al., “Novel antitumor activities of Kushen flavonoids in vitro and in vivo,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 269–277, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. Cheng, B. Xia, L. Zhang et al., “Matrine improves 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 202–208, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. J. Zhang and J. Huang, “Recent research progress of anti-tumor mechnism matrine,” China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 117–118, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. L. Xu, L. Yao, S. Y. Rao, Z. N. Gong, S. Q. Zhang, and S. Q. Yu, “Attenuation of acute lung injury in mice by oxymatrine is associated with inhibition of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 98, no. 1-2, pp. 177–183, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Z. Qin, H. Den, and H. Zhuang, “Effect of oxymatrine on prolonging the survival time of cardiac tissue allograft in mice and its immunologic mechanisms,” Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 99–100, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. L. Cui, Y. F. Wang, X. L. Li, and Q. X. Kang, “Clinical observation of matrine injection in the treatment of 51 cases of various types of cancers,” Shanxi Medical Journal, vol. 22, pp. 232–233, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  10. H. Bai, “Clinical observation of matrine injection in the treatment of middle and late stage cancers,” Shenzhen Medical Journal, vol. 9, pp. 33–34, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  11. S. Huang, J. Li, J. L. Zhu, and X. L. Hu, “Clinical observation on the efficacy of matrine injection in treating middle and late stage gastric cancer,” Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, vol. 17, article 364, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  12. Z. J. Mei, Y. K. Hong, S. B. Zhao et al., “Clinical investigation of matrine Injection in treating late stage cancers,” Huaxi Medical Journal, vol. 8, article 334, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  13. J. L. Zhu and J. Z. Chen, “Short-term observation on the efficacy of matrine injection in treating 79 cases of late stage cancers,” Shandong Medical Journal, vol. 43, article 40, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  14. Z. J. Zhang, “Effects of matrine Injection in treating 44 cases of primary carcinoma of the liver,” Guangxi Traditional Medicine, vol. 21, pp. 19–20, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  15. L. Q. Bao, A. M. Peng, and H. Y. Yuan, “Clinic study on the role of hydroxycamptothecin and mateling postoperative arterial infusion in the prevention of recurrence after curative resection for human hepatocellular carcinoma,” Research on Prevention and Treament of Tumor, vol. 28, pp. 303–305, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  16. Y. J. Zhu, X. F. Chen, and Y. L. Huang, “Clinical observation on the efficacy of mateling injection combined with abdominal chemotherapy in treating 21 cases of malignant ascites,” Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine on Gastro-Spleen, vol. 8, pp. 311–312, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  17. Y. F. Zhou, “Clinical observation on the efficacy of mateling injection combined with abdominal chemotherapy in treating malignant ascites,” Journal of Emergency in Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 13, pp. 286–287, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  18. L. H. Shi and Y. H. Qiu, “Clinical investigation of kosam combined with chemotherapy to treat advanced malignant tumor,” Journal of Tumor, vol. 7, pp. 95–97, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  19. Y. Z. Chen, Y. Q. Li, and Wang, “Fufang Kushen Injection in treatment of mild or moderate cancer pain,” Journal of Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 35, pp. 61–69, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  20. L. H. Dou and Z. Guo, “Efficacy observation of fentanyl skin patches combined with compound Sophora flavescens injection in the treatment of cancer pain,” China Pharmacy, vol. 23, pp. 1480–1482, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  21. C. J. Yuan, W. Z. Zhao, and J. K. Wang, “Efficacy observation of chemotherapy with compound Sophora flavescens injection in the treatment of elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer,” Shandong Medicine, vol. 52, pp. 51–52, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  22. B. Feng and X. Q. Zhao, “Effect of composite Radix Sophora Flavescentis injection on immunological function in patients with lung cancer,” China Pharmacy, vol. 18, pp. 2612–2613, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  23. X. H. Wang, Y. H. Li, J. Q. Yang, R. J. Zhang, J. G. Wang, and W. N. Hu, “Impact of compound matrine injection on clinical efficacy and immune functions among breast carcinoma patients undergoing postoperative chemotherapy,” Chinese General Practice, vol. 14, pp. 2696–2698, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  24. Y. L. Wang, H. Fang, X. C. Wang, and K. M. Zhou, “To observe the clinical effect of complex kushen injection with TACE on middle and advanced stages of primary hepatic carcinoma,” Shangdong Medicine, vol. 51, pp. 88–89, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  25. Q. Shi, Z. X. Wang, and Q. H. Zhao, “Compound matrine injection combined with FOLFIRI chemotherapy in the treatment of 50 patients with advanced colorectal cancer,” Chinese Journal of New Drugs, vol. 19, pp. 1589–1592, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  26. Z. Lu, L. Qi, G. X. Li, C. G. Ma, J. Liu, and K. Liu, “Clinical efficiency of compound Kushen injection combined with radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with cervical cancer,” China Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, vol. 31, pp. 1114–1117, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  27. H. J. Li, Y. G. Liang, and G. X. Zhang, “Effect of compound Sophora flavescens injection on attenuating the toxicity of chemotherapy for acute leukemia,” China Pharmacy, vol. 23, pp. 323–325, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  28. L. Zhang, “Compound matrine injection in the treatment of 32 patients with malignant pleural effusion,” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 52, pp. 1149–1150, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  29. X. D. Guo, T. H. Jiang, W. W. Zhang, X. M. Zhang, and K. Q. Han, “Clinical observation on kurorinone in preventing hepatic injury caused by chemotherapy,” Chinese Pharmaceutical Association, vol. 26, pp. 336–338, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  30. H. B. Tan, J. Zhang, and J. W. Zhang, “Tretment of advanced gastric cancer with composed Kushen injection combined with FOLFOX4 adjuvant chemotherapy,” Medical Journal of Wuhan University, vol. 33, pp. 215–218, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  31. Z. F. Huang, J. B. Liu, H. Z. Li, and C. J. Huang, “Effect of combination of composite Sophorae injection and chemotherapy for treatment of 30 advanced gastric cancer patients,” West China Medical Journal, vol. 24, pp. 2883–2885, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  32. Z. Y. Wang, G. S. Li, and H. X. Huang, “Clinical observation on treatment of 75 mid-late stage cancer patients with yanshu injection,” Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 681–684, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. J. Hu, H. Zeng, Y. L. Wu et al., “Synergistic effects of matrine and 5-fluorouracil on tumor growth of the implanted gastric cancer in nude mice,” Chinese Journal of Digestive Diseases, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 68–71, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Zhang, J. Qi, L. Sun et al., “Matrine induces programmed cell death and regulates expression of relevant genes based on PCR array analysis in C6 glioma cells,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 791–799, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. X. S. Liu and J. Jiang, “Molecular mechanism of matrine-induced apoptosis in leukemia K562 cells,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1095–1103, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. Yu, Q. Liu, K. Liu, K. Yagasaki, E. Wu, and G. Zhang, “Matrine suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via VEGF-Akt-NF-κB signaling,” Cytotechnology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 219–229, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, P. Yu et al., “Effects of matrine against the growth of human lung cancer and hepatoma cells as well as lung cancer cell migration,” Cytotechnology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 191–200, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. Luo, Y. Zhu, T. Jiang et al., “Matrine induced gastric cancer MKN45 cells apoptosis via increasing pro-apoptotic molecules of Bcl-2 family,” Toxicology, vol. 229, no. 3, pp. 245–252, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Q. Zhang, Y. M. Li, T. Liu et al., “Antitumor effect of matrine in human hepatoma G2 cells by inducing apoptosis and autophagy,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 34, pp. 4281–4290, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. H. Chui, F. Y. Lau, J. C. Tang et al., “Activities of fresh juice of Scutellaria barbata and warmed water extract of Radix Sophorae Tonkinensis on anti-proliferation and apoptosis of human cancer cell lines.,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 337–341, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Y. Wang, C. Peng, G. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. Li, and J. Shan, “Study on invasion and metastasis related factors in differentiation of SMMC-7721 cells induced by matrine,” Zhong Yao Cai, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 566–569, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. X. Z. Wu, “A new classification system of anticancer drugs—based on cell biological mechanisms,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 883–887, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. X. Y. Liu, H. Fang, Z. G. Yang et al., “Matrine inhibits invasiveness and metastasis of human malignant melanoma cell line A375 in vitro,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 448–456, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Z. J. Dai, J. Gao, X. J. Wang et al., “Apoptotic mechanism of gastric carcinoma cells induced by matrine injection,” Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 261–265, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. Han, M. Sun, Y. Cui et al., “Kushen flavonoids induce apoptosis in tumor cells by inhibition of NF-κB activation and multiple receptor tyrosine kinase activities,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 262–268, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Y. Sun, J. Zuo, J. F. Duan et al., “Antitumor activities of kushen flavonoids in vivo and in vitro,” Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. K. Son, J. S. Park, J. A. Kim, Y. Kim, S. R. Chung, and S. H. Lee, “Prenylated flavonoids from the roots of Sophora flavescens with tyrosinase inhibitory activity,” Planta Medica, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 559–561, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. J. Kim, K. H. Son, H. W. Chang, S. S. Kang, and H. P. Kim, “Tyrosinase inhibitory prenylated flavonoids from Sophora flavescens,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1348–1350, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. K. Hyun, W. H. Lee, D. M. Jeong, Y. Kim, and J. S. Choi, “Inhibitory effects of kurarinol, kuraridinol, and trifolirhizin from Sophora flavescens on tyrosinase and melanin synthesis,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 154–158, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Y. B. Ryu, I. M. Westwood, N. S. Kang et al., “Kurarinol, tyrosinase inhibitor isolated from the root of Sophora flavescens,” Phytomedicine, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 612–618, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. W. vanden Berghe, A. de Naeyer, N. Dijsselbloem, J. P. David, D. de Keukeleire, and G. Haegeman, “Attenuation of ERK/RSK2-driven NFκB gene expression and cancer cell proliferation by kurarinone, a lavandulyl flavanone isolated from Sophora flavescens Ait. roots,” Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 247–261, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. P. Lai, X. W. He, Y. Jiang, and F. Chen, “Preparative separation and determination of matrine from the Chinese medicinal plant Sophora flavescens Ait by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 375, no. 2, pp. 264–269, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. L. P. Zhang, J. K. Jiang, J. W. O. Tam et al., “Effects of matrine on proliferation and differentiation in K-562 cells,” Leukemia Research, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 793–800, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. Y. Liu, J. H. Hu, Q. G. Zhu, F. Q. Li, J. Wang, and H. J. Sun, “Effect of matrine on the expression of substance P receptor and inflammatory cytokines production in human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 816–823, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. L. Zhang, T. Wang, X. Wen et al., “Effect of matrine on HeLa cell adhesion and migration,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 563, no. 1–3, pp. 69–76, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Y. Li, B. Wang, C. Zhou, and Y. Bi, “Matrine induces apoptosis in angiotensin II-stimulated hyperplasia of cardiac fibroblasts: effects on Bcl-2/Bax expression and caspase-3 activation,” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. Zou, Z. H. Ran, Q. Xu, and S. D. Xiao, “Experimental study of the killing effects of oxymatrine on human colon cancer cell line SW1116,” Chinese Journal of Digestive Diseases, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 15–20, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. H. S. Mao, H. Y. Liu, and C. Li, “Modulation of the malignant phenotype and the immunological response of tumor cells by Sophora flavescens Ait (AF-7),” Chinese Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 799–803, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. L. J. Li, Z. Q. Chen, Y. Y. Zheng, W. X. Tang, and Y. Yu, “In vitro effects of oxymatrine on human ovarian cancer cell SKOV-3,” Journal of Practical Oncology, vol. 17, pp. 100–101, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  60. L. T. Ma, Y. Zhang, S. H. Wen, Y. J. He, G. F. Kang, and J. K. Jiang, “Experimental study of the antitumor effects of oxymatrine on murine H22 hepatoma,” Academic Journal of Chongqing Medical University, vol. 30, pp. 178–182, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  61. Y. Wang, W. K. Si, P. Li, and J. Yao, “Effects of matrine and oxymatrine on the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells,” Academic Journal of Third Military Medical University, vol. 26, pp. 778–780, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  62. Q. Z. Kong, T. Huang, D. S. Huang et al., “Inhibitory effects of oxymatrine on angiogenesis of murine S180 sarcoma,” China Pharmacist, vol. 6, pp. 769–771, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  63. G. W. Xu, S. J. Man, Z. S. Wang, and L. B. Wang, “Effect of oxymatrine on immunology of tumor-bearing mice,” Chinese Journal of Clinical Oncology and Rehabilitation, vol. 8, pp. 9–10, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  64. X. S. Liu, J. Jiang, X. Y. Jiao, Y. E. Wu, and J. H. Lin, “matrine-induced apoptosis in leukemia U937 cells: involvement of caspases activation and MAPK-independent pathways,” Planta Medica, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 501–506, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. X. Y. Liu, H. Fang, Z. G. Yang et al., “Matrine inhibits invasiveness and metastasis of human malignant melanoma cell line A375 in vitro,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 448–456, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. H. Jiang, C. Hou, S. Zhang et al., “Matrine upregulates the cell cycle protein E2F-1 and triggers apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in K562 cells,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 559, no. 2-3, pp. 98–108, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. Zhang, J. Qi, L. Sun et al., “Matrine induces programmed cell death and regulates expression of relevant genes based on PCR array analysis in C6 glioma cells,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 791–799, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. Yang, J. W. Chen, and Y. S. Lin, “Clinical observation on the efficacy of mateling injection combined with radiotherapy in treating nasopharyngeal tumors,” Strait Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 8, pp. 41–43, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  69. M. J. Hu, H. Zeng, Y. L. Wu et al., “Synergistic effects of matrine and 5-fluorouracil on tumor growth of the implanted gastric cancer in nude mice,” Chinese Journal of Digestive Diseases, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 68–71, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. Luo, Y. Zhu, T. Jiang et al., “Matrine induced gastric cancer MKN45 cells apoptosis via increasing pro-apoptotic molecules of Bcl-2 family,” Toxicology, vol. 229, no. 3, pp. 245–252, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. L. Ma, S. Wen, Y. Zhan, Y. He, X. Liu, and J. Jiang, “Anticancer effects of the Chinese medicine matrine on murine hepatocellular carcinoma cells,” Planta Medica, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 245–251, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. L. Zhang, T. Wang, X. Wen et al., “Effect of matrine on HeLa cell adhesion and migration,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 563, no. 1–3, pp. 69–76, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Q. Song, J. S. Zhu, J. L. Chen et al., “Synergistic effect of oxymatrine and angiogenesis inhibitor NM-3 on modulating apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1788–1793, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. Q. Ling, X. Xu, X. Wei et al., “Oxymatrine induces human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells apoptosis via regulating expression of Bcl-2 and IAP families, and releasing of cytochrome c,” Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 30, no. 1, article 66, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. Y. Zhang, B. Piao, Y. Zhang et al., “Oxymatrine diminishes the side population and inhibits the expression of β-catenin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” Medical Oncology, vol. 28, supplement 1, pp. 99–107, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. Y. G. Hong, T. Huang, and J. S. Wang, “Effect of Compound kushen injection combined with chemotherapy on immune function and CEA in advanced lung adenocarcinoma,” Chinese Journal of New Drugs, vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 1633–1635, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  77. J. Chen, Q. Mei, Y. C. Xu, J. Du, Y. Wei, and Z. M. Xu, “Effects of matrine Injection on T-lymphocyte subsets of patients with malignant tumor after gamma knife radiosurgery,” Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 78–79, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. Z. J. Dai, J. Gao, W. Y. Wu et al., “Effect of matrine injections on invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells in vitro,” Zhong Yao Cai, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 815–819, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Kuroyanagi, T. Arakawa, Y. Hirayama, and T. Hayashi, “Antibacterial and antiandrogen flavonoids from Sophora flavescens,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 1595–1599, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. E. R. Woo, J. H. Kwak, H. J. Kim, and H. Park, “A new prenylated flavonol from the roots of Sophora flavescens,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 1552–1554, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. S. Y. Ryu, S. U. Choi, S. K. Kim, Z. No, C. O. Lee, and J. W. Ahn, “In vitro antitumour activity of flavonoids from Sophora flavescens,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 51–53, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  82. T. H. Kang, S. J. Jeong, W. G. Ko et al., “Cytotoxic lavandulyl flavanones from Sophora flavescens,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 680–681, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. Y. Y. Zhao and R. Y. Zhang, “Research on chemical constituents of Sophora flavescens,” Natural Product Research And Development, vol. 3, pp. 93–103, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  84. P. Ding, D. Chen, K. F. Bastow, A. K. Nyarko, X. Wang, and K. H. Lee, “Cytotoxic isoprenylated flavonoids from the roots of Sophora flavescens,” Helvetica Chimica Acta, vol. 87, no. 10, pp. 2574–2580, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. M. Han, Y. Y. Jin, H. Y. Kim, K. H. Park, W. S. Lee, and T. S. Jeong, “Lavandulyl flavonoids from Sophora flavescens suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases in RAW264.7 cells,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1019–1023, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus