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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 406296, 7 pages
Research Article

Absence of Genotoxic and Mutagenic Effects of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith (Zingiberaceae) Extract

1School of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2Department of Internal Medicine, Pao Chien Hospital, Pingtung County, Ping Tung City 90064, Taiwan
3Department of Pharmacy and Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Tajen University, Yanpu Shiang, Ping Tung Shien 90701, Taiwan

Received 28 February 2012; Revised 17 May 2012; Accepted 25 May 2012

Academic Editor: Wagner Vilegas

Copyright © 2012 Chia Ju Chang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The present study evaluated the potential genotoxicity of the ethanol extracts from the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith (EEZZR) using a standard battery of tests. Chemical analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry revealed that EEZZR contained Zerumbone ( μg/g) and 6-gingerol ( μg/g). There were no increases in the number of revertant colonies with EEZZR at concentrations of 150–5000 μg per plate, regardless of the metabolic activation system (S-9 mix) used in the histidine-dependent auxotrophic mutants of Salmonella typhimurium (strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535) compared to the vehicle control. Furthermore, EEZZR at doses of 150–5000 μg mL−1 did not increase the number of structural aberrations in Chinese hamster lung cells in the presence or absence of S-9 mix. An oral administration of EEZZR to ICR mice, with doses of up to 2000 mg/kg, caused no significant increases in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) and mean ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to total erythrocytes. Lastly, RZZEE did not increase the incidence of MNPCEs in bone marrow. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that the use of EEZZR in traditional medicine poses no risk of genotoxicity.