|Table 3: Medical insurance and herbal drug monitoring systems of traditional medicine in China (including the Taiwan region), Korea, and Japan.|
|ADR: adverse drug reaction; CCMP: Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy; DOH: Department of Health; KFDA: Korea Food and Drug Administration; MHLW: Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare; MOH: Ministry of Health; NHI: National Health Insurance; PMDA: Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency; SFDA: State Food and Drug Administration; TM: Traditional Medicine|
⬤: Completely covered, ▲: partially covered, X: not covered.
aMedical insurance coverage of TCM was implemented in all insurance systems from the beginning of new China in 1951. In 1999, the new NHI system was established, and TCM remained an important element.
bIn Korea, manual therapies (Chuna) are covered by car insurance in the event of an accident, not by NHI.
cIn Japan, massage therapy is covered when performed in hospital.
dIn total, 507 ADRs to herbal drugs were reported from August 2001 to November 2005, but the relevant data could not be obtained for the Taiwan region, and an estimated number was presented in Korea.