The putative relationship between NAU properties and needling sensation.
|NAU properties||Components of needling sensation|
|Type of NAUs||Cutaneous-receptor-rich NAUs with a predominance of nociceptors.||Muscle-spindle- and tendon-organ-rich NAUs. |
|NAU reactions||Biochemical reaction||Biophysical reaction |
|Dominant afferent fibers||Aδ and C||Aβ and Aδ|
|Acupuncture stimulation modesa||Prick; shallow needling; high-frequency EA; laser acupuncture; heat acupuncture.||Most manual techniques in gentle and repetitive manipulation; low-frequency, high-intensity EA and TENS. |
aLow-frequency, high-intensity EA and TENS is thought to dominantly activates myelinated fibers (Aβ and Aδ), whereas high-frequency EA mainly activate small-diameter myelinated Aδ fibers and unmyelinated C fibers [133, 134]. |
bEA, electroacupuncture; TENS, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.