Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2012 / Article / Fig 2

Research Article

Gallic Acid Enriched Fraction of Phyllanthus emblica Potentiates Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing via e-NOS-Dependent Pathway

Figure 2

Healing capacities of GAE, gallic acid and omeprazole under the optimized treatment regime. (a) ulcer indices; (b) histology. Ulceration in the mice was induced by indomethacin (18 mg/kg, single dose, p.o.). Treatment was carried out with GAE (5 mg/kg daily, p.o.), gallic acid (3 mg/kg daily, p.o.), and omeprazole (3 mg/kg daily, p.o.) for 3 days, starting the first dose 6 h postulcer induction. The sections of mice stomachs were processed for capturing the images. Representative histology of gastric tissue sections are shown at 10x magnification. (i) normal, (ii) Ulcerated untreated, (iii) Ulcerated + GAE treated, (iv) Ulcerated + Gallic acid treated, (v) Ulcerated + Omeprazole treated, mucosal, and submucosal layers are shown by blue and green arrows, respectively. The ulcer indiceswere calculated from the damage scores.The values are mean ± S.E. of four independent experiments, each with 8 mice/group. * 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 , compared to normal mice; ** 𝑃 < 0 . 0 1 ,*** 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 , compared to untreated mice.

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