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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 503165, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/503165
Research Article

Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

1School of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
2Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
3School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
4Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian, Fuzhou 350001, China
5Department of Nursing, Hungkuang University, Taichung 433, Taiwan
6Department of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
7Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Wufeng, Taichung 413, Taiwan

Received 4 January 2012; Revised 5 March 2012; Accepted 12 March 2012

Academic Editor: Xiu-Min Li

Copyright © 2012 Ching-Ying Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 ( μg/mL) and CVA16 ( μg/mL). Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions.