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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 503165, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/503165
Research Article

Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

1School of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
2Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
3School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
4Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian, Fuzhou 350001, China
5Department of Nursing, Hungkuang University, Taichung 433, Taiwan
6Department of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
7Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Wufeng, Taichung 413, Taiwan

Received 4 January 2012; Revised 5 March 2012; Accepted 12 March 2012

Academic Editor: Xiu-Min Li

Copyright © 2012 Ching-Ying Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

Supplemental Figure 1: Reduction of cytopathic effects by K. gracilis leaf extract. The morphology of RD cells infected with EV71 (A) or CVA16 (B) were observed for the effect of K. gracilis leaf extract in CPE reduction assay. EV71 and CVA16 at the MOI of 1 was each mixed with K. gracilis leaf extract, and then added into RD cell cultures. Incubated RD cells were observed and photographed under microscopy 24- and 48-h post infection.

Supplemental Figure 2: Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and NF-κB p65 in infected RD cells with or without the treatment of K. gracilis leaf extract. RD cells were infected with EV71 (A) or CVA16 (B) and simultaneously treated with K. racilis leaf extract at a concentration of 50 μg/ml. The cells were harvested at 0-, 30-, 60- and 240 min post infection, and Western blotting analysis was performed as described in the Materials and Methods section.

Supplemental Figure 3: Western blotting of caspase 9 in EV71-infected RD cells with or without the treatment of K. gracilis leaf extract. RD cells were infected with EV71 at a MOI of 1 in the absence (Lane 1) and presence of K. racilis leaf extract at concentrations of 10, 50 and 100 μg/ml (Lanes 2-4). The cells were harvested 1 day post infection, and Western blotting analysis was performed as described in the Materials and Methods section.

Supplemental Table 1: Virus loads in pooled intestines from EV71-inoculated suckling mice with or without treatment of K. gracilis leaf extract.

  1. Supplementary Materials