Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2012 / Article / Fig 2

Research Article

Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1 -Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

Figure 2

Effect of botanical extracts on IL-1β-induced cell degradation and apoptosis. Serum-starved chondrocytes were either left untreated, (a) exposed to IL-1β (10 ng/mL) alone (b), or to botanical extracts alone (f–h) for 1, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h or pretreated for 24 h with botanical extracts (10 μg/mL) before being cotreated with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) and botanical extracts (10 μg/ml) (c–e) and evaluated with TEM. Chondrocytes treated with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) exhibited characteristic features of degeneration: annular chromatin condensation at the nuclear envelope of chondrocytes, swelling of mitochondria, and rough ER in a time-dependent manner (b). Chondrocytes that were pretreated with botanical extracts and then cotreated with IL-1β and botanical extracts (panels c–e) showed less severe cell degeneration at the ultrastructural level. In control cultures (a) and treated with botanical extracts alone (panels f–h) showed no ultrastructural changes. A–M: ×5000; Bar = 1 μm. Treatments: Rosa canina + IL-1β, panel (c); Salix alba + IL-1β, panel (d); Urtica dioica + IL-1β, panel (e); Rosa canina without IL-1β, panel (f); Salix alba without IL-1β, panel (g); Urtica dioica without IL-1β, panel (h).

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