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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 540671, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/540671
Research Article

Neutralisation of Local Haemorrhage Induced by the Saw-Scaled Viper Echis carinatus sochureki Venom Using Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus aethiopicus L.

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 35, 123, Muscat, Oman
2Department of Human & Clinical Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 35, Muscat 123, Oman
3Pharmacognosy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Al-Baha University, Saudi Arabia

Received 30 January 2012; Accepted 21 February 2012

Academic Editor: Olumayokun A. Olajide

Copyright © 2012 S. S. Hasson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The objective of the study is to investigate the anti-snake venom activities of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with ethanol. Different assays were performed according to standard techniques, to evaluate the plant’s acute toxicity and its antivenom activities. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the H. aethiopicus extract using “oral and intra-peritoneal” route were normal even at the highest dose (24 g/kg) tested. All guinea pigs ( ) when treated with venoms E. c. sochureki (75 μg) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage. In contrast, all guinea pigs ( ) treated with both venom and the plant extract at a concentration between 500 and 1000 mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage. Moreover, all guinea pigs ( ) treated with venom and the plant extract below 400 mg/kg showed acute skin haemorrhage. All guinea pigs treated with venom E. c. sochureki (75 μg) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage after both 24 and 32 hours. In contrast, all guinea pigs treated with both venom and the plant extract (administered independently) at concentrations between 500 and 1000 mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage after 32 hours. However, after 24 hours all tested guinea pigs showed less inhibition (<60%) compared to that obtained after 32 hours. The outcome of this study reflects that the extract of H. aethiopicus plant may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom induced local haemorrhage.