Table 1: Medicinal plant remedies used by Senegalese migrants in Turin.

Botanical taxon, family, and voucher specimen codeLocal name(s)Part(s) usedPreparation and administrationFolk medical use (used against/to regulate)Qs

Adansonia digitata L. (Bombacaceae)BaobobSeedEatenDiarrhoea+

SeedGrind the seeds and put the powder on the lipsBurning lips
Grind the seeds and put the powder on the painful tooth Toothache
Acacia nilotica (L.)
Willd. ex Delile (Fabaceae) UNISGSEN15
Mbano (m)
Nep nep (w)
RootMake a decoction and drink just a little bit Indigestion+++
Externally appliedWounds
BarkDrink the beverage together with Tamarindus indica fruit pulp and Hibiscus sabdariffa flowersFatigue

Grind it, add salt, and put it on the haematoma Haematoma +++
Acacia tortilis (Forssk.)
Hayne (Fabaceae) UNISGSEN05
Senjen (w)RootDrink the decoctionEye inflammations
Bellyache
Drink the decoction while eating some sugar, repeating the procedure three times a day Worms
Macerated in water for two days; the macerate drunkSexual impotence
Stomachache
Kidney troubles

Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae) UNISGSEN20Buy (w)
Baobab (f)
FruitDrink the beverage made using the pulp around the seeds Diarrhoea +++
Same as above, adding Hibiscus sabdariffa flowerDiarrhoea

Allium cepa L. (Amaryllidaceae)CibolleBulbEatenSexual impotence
Cold
+

Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae)Ail (f)
Ladji (w)
BulbPut a piece of garlic on the right wrist if the sore tooth is in the upper jaw and vice versa for the lower jaw (chanting Koran’s verses helps the pain to disappear) Toothache
Sexual impotence
+++
EatenIntestinal worms
Lowering the blood pressure
Cold and cold prevention

Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae)AnacardoSeedDrunkAntibiotic+

Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae)SuncunLeafPut (powdered) on the fireMagic remedy (supposed to counteract bad spirits)+

Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabaceae) UNISGSEN16Arachide (f)
Gerte (w)
SeedEat the seedsStomachache+

Balanites aegyptiaca
(L.) Delile (Zygophyllaceae)
Dattier du désert (f)
Soumpu
Gurp
Petit cola
Leaf Grind the leaves and drink the infusion prepared with the powdered leaves Sore throat +++
FruitChew the fruit without ingesting itStomachache
Digestive
Fatigue
Nausea

Calotropis procera (Aiton)
W.T. Aiton (Apocynaceae) UNISGSEN55
Kipampaan (p)
Poftan (m)
Pomme de Sodome (f)
RootCut the roots into small pieces, put it into
a cotton handkerchief, squeeze, it and inhale the aroma
Sinusitis+
Stems
juice
Externally appliedWounds

LeafDrink the infusion prepared with ground leaves Constipation +++
Cassia italica (Mill)
Sprengel (Fabaceae)
Layduur (w)Drink the infusion prepared with ground leaves Intoxication
RootLeave the root soaking all night and drink the water in the morning, before breakfastIntestinal worms

Cassia occidentalis L. (Fabaceae) UNISGSEN11Adiana (w)
Bantaare (p)
Bentamarè (s)
Kassala (m)
Mbanta xobi (w)
LeafPut leaves around the headHeadache+
BathsFatigue

Cassia tora L. (Fabaceae) UNISGSEN76 Cassepuante (f)
Ndur (w)
LeafUse it as a mouthwashMouth infections +
Ceratotheca sesamoides
Endl. (Pedaliaceae)
Jorokh lane (w)LeafPut the leaf into water at room temperature and after it releases oil, apply the oil to the bodyHigh fever+
Dried leaf is soaked in water; the water is drunkBellyache

Citrus limon (L.)
Osbeck. (Rutaceae)
Citron (f)
Limon (w)
FruitDrink the juiceTo lose weight
Digestive
Strengthening
Malaria (drunk in the coffee)
++

Combretum aculeatum
Vent. (Combretaceae)
Sawat (w)LeafPut ground leaves and sugar into water and instil the solution in the eyesWhite spot in the eye on the pupil+

Combretum glutinosum
Perr. ex DC. (Combretaceae)
Chigommier (f)
Rat (w)
LeafDrink the decoctionBronchitis/cough
Sexual impotence
+

LeafDrink the decoction (sometimes adding cloves) Cold
Flue
Lung infections
Sore throat
Antihypertensive
+++
Combretum micranthum
G. Don (Combretaceae) UNISGSEN10
Quinkeliba (f)
Sekhaw (w)
FlowerDrink the decoction with milk every morning Enhancing the “well-being”
Make a decoction with Xylopia aethiopica seeds and cloves (Eugenia caryophillata flower buds)Vision problems

Dioscorea spp. (Dioscoreaceae) UNISGSEN83Igname (f)
Yam (w)
RootEat the rootTo gain weight+

Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae)Palmier à huile (f)
Tiir (w)
Fruit→ OilAdd oil and coffee to Vitellaria paradoxa butter and dab on the body To get rid of the “dead” blood when feeling weak+
Dab on the bodyBoils

Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Myrtaceae) UNISGSEN88Eucaliptus (f)
Khotta bu tel (w)
LeafPut it around the head while listening to the reading of the KoranHeadache+

Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae) UNISGSEN38Girofle (f)
Xorompole (w)
Flower budUse the infusion prepared with Xylopia
aethiopica seeds and Combretum micranthum flower
Vision problems+

Euphorbia balsamifera
Ait. (Euphorbiaceae)
Salan
Salan mbechi
BranchCut the branch and put the latex on the woundWounds++

RootDrink the decoctionBellyache
Ficus iteophylla Miq. (Moraceae)Xassum loro (w)LeafDrink the decoctionDigestive asthma +++
LeafDab on the affected partBackache skin allergies

Grewia bicolor Juss. (Malvaceae)Kel (w)LeafDrink the decoctionFatigue
Bronchitis/cough
Digestive
++

Guiera senegalensis
J.F. Gmel. (Combretaceae) UNISGSEN18
Ngueer (w) Mamakumkoyo (m) Mamankuiò (s)RootDrink the decoctionCold+++
LeafDrink the decoctionBronchitis/cough kidney troubles
Fatigue stomachache

Put the infusion into the eyesItchy eyes+++
Flower (red)Drink the decoction Bellyaches Menstrual pains Preventing ageing Fatigue Fever Improving the blood circulation
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) UNISGSEN12Bissap (w)
Karkadè (f)
Put the infusion into the eyesEye problems
Drink the beverage together with Tamarindus indica fruit pulp and Acacia nilotica barkFatigue
Flower (white)As a food medicine—as a main ingredient of a dish prepared with boiled meat of fish, cooked with tamarind and chilies (lakk bissap)Fatigue

Maerua crassifolia Forssk (Capparaceae)Sothiou (w)
Sothiou suukar
BranchChew the branchHalitosis+

Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) UNISGSEN37Manguier (f)
Màngo joolaa (w)
LeafDrink the decoctionTetanus++

Manihot esculenta
Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) UNISGSEN07
Gnambi (w)
Manioc (f)
Mañok (m)
RootEat the rootTo gain weight+

Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae)NebedaiLeafEaten in sauces, generally accompanied
with meat and couscous
Diabetes+

Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae)Bananier (f)LeafTopical application of the leaf infusionBurns+

Panicum miliaceum L. (Poaceae)Mil (f)FruitEat millet (couscous)To gain weight
Fatigue
+

Parinari macrophylla Sabine (Chrysobalanaceae)New (w)
Tamba
LeafDrink the infusion made from 7 leavesHigh blood pressure+
LeafDrink the infusionStomachache

Piper nigrum
L. (Piperaceae)
Mex pobare (w)
Poivre noir (f)
FruitEat the dried berryRunny nose+

Tamarindus indica
L. (Fabaceae)
Tamarin (f)
Daqaar (w)
Fruit
pulp
Eaten, or drunk, in a beverage made adding the bark of Acacia nilotica and the flower of Hibiscus sabdariffa Fatigue+

Terminalia catappa
L. (Combretaceae)
Badamier (f)
Toubab (w)
Xopp kerte
Not specifiedNot specifiedAntibiotic, antifungal+

Add salt to the butter and dab on the backBackache +++
Vitellaria paradoxa
C.F. Gaertn. (Sapotaceae)
Karitè (f)Seed→butterAdd coffee, Elaeis guineensis’ oil and dab on the body To get rid of the “dead” blood when feeling weak
Dab the butter on the bodyMassage on the child’s body, to make the child stronger.
Bone strengthening
Dab the butter on hairHair loss

Drink the decoction, also a spice in the coffeeSexual impotence++
Xylopia aethiopica
A. Rich. (Annonaceae)
UNISGSEN70
Diar (w)
Jar
SeedInstill the infusion of seeds into the eyesEye problems,
conjunctivitis
Instill the infusion of seeds into the ear Otitis
Pour the infusion made from the seeds, Eugenia caryophyllata flower buds and Combretum micranthum flowerVision problems

Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) UNISGSEN09Djindjer (w)
Djinjeroo (m)
Gingembre (f)
Fresh rhizomeEaten, or juice drunk, or decoctionSexual impotence
Blood circulation
+++

LeafDrink the decoctionWorms
Not identifiedBerbef (w)Use the rough leaf like a sponge under the showerPruritus+
FruitMake a pasta and dab on the skinItchiness
Not identifiedBonyeAntibiotic+

Not identifiedKhambata (w)LeafDrink the infusionHeadache+

Not identifiedNdiadameFruitCook it slowly and eat it; it is really bitterIntestinal worms+

Not identifiedSangol (w)RootPut it in water for up to two minutes and drink it (very bitter) Intestinal worms+
LeafSoak in water and externally apply on the skinItchiness

Not identifiedWatenobout (w)BranchPut the latex that comes out of the broken branch on the woundWounds+

(f): French; (m): Mandingo; (p): Pulaar; (w): Wolof; Qs: quotations: + quoted by 1 or 2 informants only; ++ quoted by 3, 4, or 5 informants; +++ quoted by 5 informants or more.