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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 623879, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/623879
Review Article

Protective Effect of Proanthocyanidin against Diabetic Oxidative Stress

1Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea

Received 28 April 2011; Revised 1 June 2011; Accepted 9 June 2011

Academic Editor: Jae Youl Cho

Copyright © 2012 Takako Yokozawa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We investigated the antidiabetic potential of proanthocyanidin and its oligomeric form in STZ-induced diabetic model rats and db/db type 2 diabetic mice. Proanthocyanidin ameliorated the diabetic condition by significant decreases of serum glucose, glycosylated protein, and serum urea nitrogen as well as decreases of urinary protein and renal-AGE in STZ-induced diabetic rats and decrease of serum glucose as well as significant decrease of glycosylated protein in db/db type 2 diabetic mice. The suppression of ROS generation and elevation of the GSH/GSSG ratio were also observed in the groups administered proanthocyanidin. Moreover, proanthocyanidin, especially its oligomeric form, affected the inflammatory process with the regulation of related protein expression, iNOS, COX-2 and upstream regulators, NF-κB, and the IκB-α. In addition, it had a marked effect on hyperlipidemia through lowering significant levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and NEFA. Moreover, expressions in the liver of SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 were downregulated by the administration of proanthocyanidins. The protective effect against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in type 1 and 2 diabetic models was significantly strong in the groups administered the oligomeric rather than polymeric form. This suggests that oligomers act as a regulator in inflammatory reactions caused by oxidative stress in diabetes.