Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 673145, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/673145
Research Article

A Herbal Composition of Scutellaria baicalensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus Shows Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effects in an Ex Vivo Human Mucosal Tissue Model

1Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Upper Airway Research Laboratory (URL), Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Zhongshan City Peoples's Hospital, Zhongshan 528403, China

Received 7 August 2011; Revised 4 October 2011; Accepted 10 October 2011

Academic Editor: Senthamil R. Selvan

Copyright © 2012 Nan Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Bachert, P. Van Cauwenberge, J. Olbrecht, and J. Van Schoor, “Prevalence, classification and perception of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis in Belgium,” Allergy, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 693–698, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Hastan, W. J. Fokkens, C. Bachert et al., “Chronic rhinosinusitis in Europe—an underestimated disease. A GA2LEN in study,” Allergy, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 1216–1223, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. J. Bousquet, N. Khaltaev, A. A. Cruz et al., “Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma (ARIA) 2008 update (in collaboration with the World Health Organization, GA(2)LEN and AllerGen),” Allergy, vol. 63, supplement 86, pp. 8–160, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. J. Fokkens, V. Lund, and J. Mullol, “European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps,” Rhinology, vol. 45, no. 20, pp. 1–136, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. X. M. Li and L. Brown, “Efficacy and mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese medicines for treating asthma and allergy,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 297–306, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Patou, T. Van Zele, P. Gevaert, G. Holtappels, P. van Cauwenberge, and C. Bachert, “Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B, protein A, and lipoteichoic acid stimulations in nasal polyps,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 110–115, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Patou, G. Holtappels, K. Affleck et al., “Enhanced release of IgE-dependent early phase mediators from nasal polyp tissue,” Journal of Inflammation, vol. 6, article 11, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Patou, G. Holtappels, K. Affleck, P. Van Cauwenberge, and C. Bachert, “Syk-kinase inhibition prevents mast cell activation in human nasal tissue,” Rhinology, vol. 49, pp. 100–106, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  9. D. M. Eisenberg, R. C. Kessler, C. Foster, F. E. Norlock, D. R. Calkins, and T. L. Delbanco, “Unconventional medicine in the United States. Prevalence, costs, and patterns of use,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 328, no. 4, pp. 246–252, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Kubo, H. Matsuda, M. Tanaka et al., “Studies on Scutellariae radix. VII. Anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory actions of methanolic extract and flavonoid components from Scutellariae Radix,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 2724–2729, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y. Huang, S. Y. Tsang, X. Yao, and Z. Y. Chen, “Biological properties of baicalein in cardiovascular system,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 177–184, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. L. Kulichenko, L. V. Kireyeva, E. N. Malyshkina, and G. Wikman, “A randomized, controlled study of Kan Jang versus amantadine in the treatment of influenza in Volgograd,” Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 77–93, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. M. Jung, H. R. Schumacher, H. Kim, M. Kim, S. H. Lee, and F. Pessler, “Reduction of urate crystal-induced inflammation by root extracts from traditional oriental medicinal plants: elevation of prostaglandin D2levels,” Arthritis Research and Therapy, vol. 9, no. 4, article R64, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Z. Lixuan, D. Jingcheng, Y. Wenqin, H. Jianhua, L. Baojun, and F. Xiaotao, “Baicalin attenuates inflammation by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation in cigarette smoke induced inflammatory models,” Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 411–419, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. H. Kim, B. Shim, S. Kang et al., “Anti-inflammatory effects of Scutellaria baicalensis extract via suppression of immune modulators and MAP kinase signaling molecules,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 320–331, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Kim, I. S. Lee, S. Park, and R. Choue, “Effects of Scutellariae radix and Aloe vera gel extracts on immunoglobulin E and cytokine levels in atopic dermatitis NC/Nga mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 529–532, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Lim, K. H. Son, H. W. Chang, S. S. Kang, and H. P. Kim, “Inhibition of chronic skin inflammation by topical anti-inflammatory flavonoid preparation, Ato Formula,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 503–507, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. M. Yi, S. H. Hong, J. H. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. J. Song, and H. M. Kim, “Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus stem on mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 347–352, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. H. Jung, H. Jung, Y. C. Shin et al., “Eleutherococcus senticosus extract attenuates LPS-induced iNOS expression through the inhibition of Akt and JNK pathways in murine macrophage,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 183–187, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  20. H. U. Simon, S. Yousefi, C. Schranz, A. Schapowal, C. Bachert, and K. Blaser, “Direct demonstration of delayed eosinophil apoptosis as a mechanism causing tissue eosinophilia,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 158, pp. 3902–3908, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  21. C. Schmidt-Weber, “New T-helper subsets controlling the immune system and tissue cells,” Immunotherapy, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 427–429, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Van Zele, S. Claeys, P. Gevaert et al., “Differentiation of chronic sinus diseases by measurement of inflammatory mediators,” Allergy, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 1280–1289, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. Zhang, T. Van Zele, C. Perez-Novo et al., “Different types of T-effector cells orchestrate mucosal inflammation in chronic sinus disease,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 961–968, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Bachert, T. van Zele, P. Gevaert, L. De Schrijver, and P. Van Cauwenberge, “Superantigens and nasal polyps,” Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 523–531, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. Zhang, P. Gevaert, T. van Zele et al., “An update on the impact of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in chronic sinusitis with nasal polyposis,” Rhinology, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 162–168, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Bachert, N. Zhang, G. Holtappels et al., “Presence of IL-5 protein and IgE antibodies to staphylococcal enterotoxins in nasal polyps is associated with comorbid asthma,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 962–968, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Li-Weber, “New therapeutic aspects of flavones: the anticancer properties of Scutellaria and its main active constituents Wogonin, Baicalein and Baicalin,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 57–68, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. I. Vlastos, I. Athanasopoulos, N. S. Mastronikolis et al., “Impaired mucociliary clearance in allergic rhinitis patients is related to a predisposition to rhinosinusitis,” Ear, Nose and Throat Journal, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. E17–E19, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus