Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2012 / Article / Tab 4

Review Article

Traditional Chinese Medicine for Senile Dementia

Table 4

(a) Memory-improving and neuro-protective effects of Radix polygalae

TestTest materials/doseTest modelEndpoint/biomarkersEffectsMechanismsReference

ClinicExtracts 300 mg/d, 4 wHealthy Korean elderly with subjective memory impairment and mild cognitive impairmentdouble-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel studyKorean version of California verbal learning testSelf-ordered pointing testImprove verbal memory No adverse events, except mild dyspepsiaN.A.[32, 33]

In vivo Extracts i.p., 2 mg/kgInnate ratsNestin/BrdU Tuj1/BrdUImprove memory Promote neuro-genesisPromote proliferation Promote neurite outgrowth[34]
ExtractsStress-treated ratsGlucose utilization Cell adhesion moleculeImprove memoryIncrease glucose utilization Increase total NCAM[35]
Extracts 2 g/kg, 1–3 wNBM-lesioning ratsNeurological test Step-through testImprove memoryN.A.[36]
Extracts i.p., 10 mg/kgScopolamine-treated ratsPassive avoidance test water maze test AChEImprove memoryInhibit AChE[36]

   In vitro Extracts 0.5–5 μg/mLRat primary neurons exposed to Glutamate or AβCell viabilityProtect neuronsN.A.[37]
Extracts 0.05–5 μg/mLRat cerebellar granule neurons exposed to NMDAGlutamate release (Ca2+)i/ROSProtect neuronsN.A.[38]
Extracts 0.1–100 μg/mLRat cortical neurons exposed to Aβ 25–35Axonal length Neuro-filament-H/MAP-2Cell viabilityActivate axonal extension Protect neuronsN.A.[39]

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE); bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU); microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2); nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM); neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM); N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA); reactive oxygen species (ROS); β amyloid (Aβ); not available (N.A.); intraperitoneally (ip.).
(b) Memory-improving and neuro-protective effects of active components from Radix polygalae

TestTest materials/doseTest modelEndpoints/biomarkersEffectsMechanismsReference

In vivo Sinapic acid 10–100 mg/kgScopolamine-treated ratsRadial maze testImprove memoryN.A.[42, 43]
Sinapic acid 3–100 mg/kg, 1 hScopolamine-treat mice Basal forebrain lesioning miceStep-through test Ach/ChATImprove memoryN.A.[49]
Tenuifolin 20–80 mg/kg, 15 dAged mice Dysmnesia miceStep-down test Y maze trial AChE,NE,DA,5-HTImprove memoryIncrease NE and DA Inhibit AChE[45]
Tenuigenin 18.5–74 mg/kgAβ 1-40-treated rats ibotenic acid-treated ratsStep-through test AchE, ChATImprove memoryCholinergic[46]
Acylated oligosaccharides1–10 mg/kgScopolamine-treated ratsStep-through testImprove memoryCholinergic[44]

In vitro Tenuigenin 1–4 μg/mLAPP-transfected SH-SY5Y cellsFluorescence resonance energy transferInhibit Aβ secretionInhibit BACE1[47]
Onjisaponin 10 μMSerum deficiency or glutamate-treated PC12 cellsCell survivalProtect PC 12 cellsN.A.[48]

Acetylcholine (Ach); acetylcholinesterase (AChE); choline acetyltransferase (ChAT); 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT); dopamine (DA); norepinephrine (NE); beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE); amyloid precursor protein (APP); β amyloid (Aβ); not available (N.A.).

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