Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2012 / Article / Tab 7

Review Article

Traditional Chinese Medicine for Senile Dementia

Table 7

Memory-improving and neuro-protective effects of Radix rehmanniae.

TestTest materials/doseTest modelEndpoint/biomarkersEffectsMechanismsReference

In vivo Extracts 4.5–9.0 g/kgMSG-treated ratsMorris maze test Step-down test c-fos, NGF expressionImprove memoryMotivate hippocampal c-fos /NGF expression[75]
Extracts 4.5–9.0 g/kgMSG-treated ratsMorris maze test Step-down test NMDA-R1, GABA-R Glutamine, GABA levelsImprove memoryMotivate hippocampal NMDA-R1/GABA-R expression adjust Glutamine/GABA levels[77]

In vitroExtracts 0.1–1.0 mg/mL, 1–3 dC6 glioblastoma cellsGDNF gene expressionStimulate GDNF expressionUp-regulate cPKC/ERK1/2 pathways[76]

In vivo Catalpol i.p., 10 mg/kg, 10 dLPS-treated miceMMPNF-κBImprove memoryInhibit inflammationInhibit NF-κB activation protect mitochondrial function[78]
Catalpol 2.5–10 mg/kg, 2 wD-galactose-treated micePassive avoidance test LDH, GSH-ST, GS, CKImprove memoryInhibit oxidative stress Maintain energy metabolism[7981]
Catalpol i.p., 1–10 mg/kgIR-treated GerbilsBcl-2, Bax, NOProtect CA1 neuronsImprove memoryInhibit apoptosis Inhibit oxidative stress[8284]
Catalpol i.p., 5 mg/kg, 10 dAged ratsGAP-43/synaptophysin PKC, BDNFProtect neuroplasticityUp-regulate PKC and BDNF (hippocampus)[85]

          In vitro Catalpol 0.5 mM, 1 hMPTP-treated neuronsCells Viability, MAO-B, ROS, MCI, MMP, MPTProtect neuronsProtect mitochondriaMaintain MAO-B activity[86]
Catalpol 0.5 mM, 30 minAβ1-42-treated Cortical neurons-gliaCells Viability TNF-α, iNOS, NO, ROSProtect neuronsInhibit inflammation[87]
Catalpol 0.25–5 mg/mlPrimary rat cortical neuronsCells Viability NF-200 antigenEnhance axonal growthNo impact on survivalN.A.[88]
Catalpol 0.1–100 μg/mlOGD-treated PC12 cellsBcl-2, caspase-3/MMP SOD, GSH-PxInhibit apoptosisRetain Bcl-2 and MMP suppress caspase-3 activation maintain SOD and GSH-Px[89]
Catalpol 0.1–1.0 mMH2O2-treated PC12 cellsBcl-2 cytochrome c caspaseProtect neuronsInhibit apoptosisPrevent cytochrome c release Inactivate caspase cascade[90]
Catalpol 0.05–0.5 mM H2O2-treated astrocytesCells Viability ROSInhibit oxidative stressmaintain glutathione Scavenge ROS[91]
Catalpol 0.3–275.9 μM, 24 hOGD-treated mice astrocytesCell survival/MMP ROS, NO, iNOS, MDASOD, GSH-Px, GSHProtect astrocytesInhibit oxidative stress[92]

Nerve growth factor (NGF); oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); glutathione S-transferase (GSH-ST); glutamine synthetase (GS); creatine kinase (CK); mitochondrial complex I (MCI); mitochondrial membrain potential (MMP); mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT); brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); γ-amiobutyic acid (GABA); lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); nitric oxide (NO); inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB); protein kinase C (PKC); 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP); monosodium glutamate (MSG); lipopolysaccharide (LPS); ischemia-reperfusion (IR); monoamine oxidase (MAO); tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α; reactive oxygen species (ROS); superoxide dismutase (SOD); malondialdehyde (MDA); glutathione (GSH); glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px); glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF).

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