Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 803082, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/803082
Research Article

The Effects of the KCNQ Openers Retigabine and Flupirtine on Myotonia in Mammalian Skeletal Muscle Induced by a Chloride Channel Blocker

1Tian-Sheng Memorial Hospital, Tong-Kang, Pintong, Taiwan
2School of Biomedical Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
3Department and Graduate Institute of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
4Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

Received 2 December 2011; Accepted 12 January 2012

Academic Editor: Ke Ren

Copyright © 2012 Tzu-Rong Su et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. C. Shieh, M. Coghlan, J. P. Sullivan, and M. Gopalakrishnan, “Potassium channels: molecular defects, diseases, and therapeutic opportunities,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 557–593, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Y. J. Wu and S. I. Dworetzky, “Recent developments on KCNQ potassium channel openers,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 453–460, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. A. Brown and G. M. Passmore, “Neural KCNQ (Kv7) channels,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 156, no. 8, pp. 1185–1195, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Q. Wang, M. E. Curran, I. Splawski et al., “Positional cloning of a novel potassium channel gene: KVLQT1 mutations cause cardiac arrhythmias,” Nature Genetics, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 17–23, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. A. Singh, C. Charlier, D. Stauffer et al., “A novel potassium channel gene, KCNQ2, is mutated in an inherited epilepsy of newborns,” Nature Genetics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 25–29, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Kubisch, B. C. Schroeder, T. Friedrich et al., “KCNQ4, a novel potassium channel expressed in sensory outer hair cells, is mutated in dominant deafness,” Cell, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 437–446, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Robbins, “KCNQ potassium channels: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 1–19, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. I. A. Greenwood and S. Ohya, “New tricks for old dogs: KCNQ expression and role in smooth muscle,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 156, no. 8, pp. 1196–1203, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Rostock, C. Tober, C. Rundfeldt et al., “D-23129: a new anticonvulsant with a broad spectrum activity in animal models of epileptic seizures,” Epilepsy Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 211–223, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Blackburn-Munro and B. S. Jensen, “The anticonvulsant retigabine attenuates nociceptive behaviours in rat models of persistent and neuropathic pain,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 460, no. 2-3, pp. 109–116, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. P. G. Korsgaard, B. P. Hartz, W. D. Brown, P. K. Ahring, D. Strøbæk, and N. R. Mirza, “Anxiolytic effects of maxipost (BMS-204352) and retigabine via activation of neuronal Kv7 channels,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 314, no. 1, pp. 282–292, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Roza and J. A. Lopez-Garcia, “Retigabine, the specific KCNQ channel opener, blocks ectopic discharges in axotomized sensory fibres,” Pain, vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 537–545, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. M. Lang, J. Fleckenstein, G. M. Passmore, D. A. Brown, and P. Grafe, “Retigabine reduces the excitability of unmyelinated peripheral human axons,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1271–1278, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Y. H. Raol, D. A. Lapides, J. G. Keating, A. R. Brooks-Kayal, and E. C. Cooper, “A KCNQ channel opener for experimental neonatal seizures and status epilepticus,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 326–336, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Devulder, “Flupirtine in pain management: pharmacological properties and clinical use,” CNS Drugs, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 867–881, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Perovic, C. Schleger, G. Pergande et al., “The triaminopyridine flupirtine prevents cell death in rat cortical cells induced by N-Methyl-D-aspartate and gp120 of HIV-1,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 288, no. 1, pp. 27–33, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Perovic, G. Pergande, H. Ushijima, M. Kelve, J. Forrest, and W. E. G. Muller, “Flupirtine partially prevents neuronal injury induced by prion protein fragment and lead acetate,” Neurodegeneration, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 369–374, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Rupalla, W. Cao, and J. Krieglstein, “Flupirtine protects neurons against excitotoxic or ischemic damage and inhibits the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 294, no. 2-3, pp. 469–473, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Block, G. Pergande, and M. Schwarz, “Flupirtine reduces functional deficits and neuronal damage after global ischemia in rats,” Brain Research, vol. 754, no. 1-2, pp. 279–284, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Seyfried, B. O. Evert, C. Rundfeldt et al., “Flupirtine and retigabine prevent L-glutamate toxicity in rat pheochromocytoma PC 12 cells,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 400, no. 2-3, pp. 155–166, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. I. Tsevi, R. Vicente, M. Grande et al., “KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels during germ-cell differentiation in the rat: expression associated with testis pathologies,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 202, no. 2, pp. 400–410, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. C. Lerche, C. R. Scherer, G. Seebohm et al., “Molecular cloning and functional expression of KCNQ5, a potassium channel subunit that may contribute to neuronal M-current diversity,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 275, no. 29, pp. 22395–22400, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. C. Schroeder, M. Hechenberger, F. Weinreich, C. Kubisch, and T. J. Jentsch, “KCNQ5, a novel potassium channel broadly expressed in brain, mediates M-type currents,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 275, no. 31, pp. 24089–24095, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Roura-Ferrer, L. Solé, R. Martínez-Mármol, N. Villalonga, and A. Felipe, “Skeletal muscle Kv7 (KCNQ) channels in myoblast differentiation and proliferation,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 369, no. 4, pp. 1094–1097, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. F. A. Iannotti, E. Panza, V. Barrese, D. Viggiano, M. V. Soldovieri, and M. Taglialatela, “Expression, localization, and pharmacological role of Kv7 potassium channels in skeletal muscle proliferation, differentiation, and survival after myotoxic insults,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 332, no. 3, pp. 811–820, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. J. Wieland and Q. H. Gong, “Modulation of a potassium conductance in developing skeletal muscle,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 268, no. 2, pp. C490–C495, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. J. Jentsch, M. Poët, J. C. Fuhrmann, and A. A. Zdebik, “Physiological functions of CLC Cl-channels gleaned from human genetic disease and mouse models,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 67, pp. 779–807, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. A. Kleopa and R. L. Barchi, “Genetic disorders of neuromuscular ion channels,” Muscle and Nerve, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 299–325, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Pusch, “Myotonia caused by mutations in the muscle chloride channel gene CLCN1,” Human Mutation, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 423–434, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. J. Lin, T. H. You, H. Pan, and K. M. Hsiao, “Functional characterization of CLCN1 mutations in Taiwanese patients with myotonia congenita via heterologous expression,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 351, no. 4, pp. 1043–1047, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. P. Cairns, V. Ruzhynsky, and J. M. Renaud, “Protective role of extracellular chloride in fatigue of isolated mammalian skeletal muscle,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 287, no. 3, pp. C762–C770, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. L. Dutka, R. M. Murphy, D. G. Stephenson, and G. D. Lamb, “Chloride conductance in the transverse tubular system of rat skeletal muscle fibres: importance in excitation-contraction coupling and fatigue,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 586, no. 3, pp. 875–887, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Senges and R. Rüdel, “Experimental myotonia in mammalian skeletal muscle: changes in contractile properties,” Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 331, no. 4, pp. 315–323, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. J. Main, J. E. Cryan, J. R. B. Dupere, B. Cox, J. J. Clare, and S. A. Burbidge, “Modulation of KCNQ2/3 potassium channels by the novel anticonvulsant retigabine,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 253–262, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Rundfeldt and R. Netzer, “The novel anticonvulsant retigabine activates M-currents in Chinese hamster ovary-cells tranfected with human KCNQ2/3 subunits,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 282, no. 1-2, pp. 73–76, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. D. Wickenden, W. Yu, A. Zou, T. Jegla, and P. K. Wagoner, “Retigabine, a novel anti-convulsant, enhances activation of KCNQ2/Q3 potassium channels,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 591–600, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. A. Friedel and A. Fitton, “Flupirtine: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in pain states,” Drugs, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 548–569, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Conravey and L. Santana-Gould, “Myotonia congenita and myotonic dystrophy: surveillance and management,” Current Treatment Options in Neurology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 16–28, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus