Table 1: Summary of compositional changes of the main bioactive compounds in brown rice during germination.

ReferenceMain bioactive changes*

Tian et al. (2004) [18]↑Phenolics, ↑antioxidant activity
Britz et al. (2007) [19]↑Alpha-tocopherol, ↑alpha-tocotrienol, ↑gamma-oryzanol, gamma-tocopherol, gamma-tocotrienol
Lee et al. (2007) [20]↑Protein, ↑fat, ↑dietary fibre, and ↑free sugars
Komatsuzaki et al. (2007) [21]↑GABA
Li et al. (2008) [22]↑Total phenolic compounds, ↑total dietary fiber, ↑GABA, and
Sawaddiwong et al. (2008) [23]↑Phenolic content, ↑antioxidant activity
Usuki et al. (2008) [24]↑Acylated steryl glycoside
Banchuen et al. (2009) [25]↑GABA, ↑protein, ↑fat, ↑dietary fibre, ↑free sugar,
↑ferulic acid, oryzanol, and phytate
Jongjareonrak et al. (2009) [26]↑Phenolics, ↑antioxidant activity
Banchuen et al. (2010) [27]↑GABA, ↑ferulic acid, phytate, and oryzanol
Charoenthaikij et al. (2010) [28]↑GABA
Jannoey et al. (2010) [29]↑GABA
Maisont and Narkrugsa (2010) [30]↑GABA, ↑dietary fibre, ↑total phenolics content,
↑antioxidant capacity, amylose, fat, and protein
Moongngarm and Saetung (2010) [31]↑Crude proteins, B-vitamins, and phytic acid
Oh et al. (2010) [32]↑Dietary fibre, ↑GABA, ↑gamma-oryzanol,
fatty acid, protein, and ash
Watchararparpaiboon et al. (2010) [33]↑GABA, ↑protein, ↑lipids, ↑thiamine, and ↑phytate
Jayadeep and Malleshi (2011) [34]↑Free sugars, ↑soluble fibre, ↑tocotrienol,
insoluble fibre, fat, tocopherol, total antioxidant activity, and gamma-oryzanol
Kim et al. (2011) [35]↑Antioxidant activity
Musa et al. (2011) [36]Amylose, starch granule
Roohinejad et al. (2011) [37]↑GABA
Xu et al. (2012) [38]↑Reducing sugars, ↑ash, and amylose
Karladee and Suriyong (2012) [39]↑GABA
Imam et al. (2012) [40]↑GABA, ↑total phenolic content, and ↑antioxidant capacity
Li et al. (2012) [41]Amylose, ↑reducing sugars, ↑GABA, and ↑dietary fibre
Liu et al. (2012) [42]Amylose, starch granule
Songtip et al. (2012) [43]↑Reducing sugars, ↑GABA

↑: increased, : decreased, and : not changed. GABA: gamma-aminobutyric acid. *Bioactive compounds present in brown rice, which undergo changes during the process of germination to confer germinated brown rice with its enhanced functional effects.