- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 841315, 7 pages
Safety and Efficacy Profile of Echinacea purpurea to Prevent Common Cold Episodes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
1Common Cold Centre and Healthcare, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XQ, UK
2Cardiff School of Biosciences, Common Cold Centre, The Sir Martin Evans Building, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK
3D. S. H. Statistical Services GmbH, 85296 Rohrbach, Germany
Received 27 April 2012; Revised 10 August 2012; Accepted 21 August 2012
Academic Editor: Dietlind Wahner-Roedler
Copyright © 2012 M. Jawad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- G. G. Jackson, H. F. Dowling, I. G. Spiesman, and A. V. Boand, “Transmission of the common cold to volunteers under controlled conditions. I. The common cold as a clinical entity,” A.M.A. Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 267–278, 1958.
- S. L. Johnston, “Cromolyns: treatment fo the common cold?” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 989–994, 1996.
- A. M. Fendrick, A. S. Monto, B. Nightengale, and M. Sarnes, “The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 163, no. 4, pp. 487–494, 2003.
- A. S. Monto, “Individual and community impact of influenza,” PharmacoEconomics, vol. 16, supplement 1, pp. 1–6, 1999.
- D. Wat, “The common cold: a review of the literature,” European Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 79–88, 2004.
- H. A. Rotbart and F. G. Hayden, “Picornavirus infections: a primer for the practitioner,” Archives of Family Medicine, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 913–920, 2000.
- S. L. Johnston, “Problems and prospects of developing effective therapy for common cold viruses,” Trends in Microbiology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 58–63, 1997.
- J. O. Hendley, “The host response, not the virus, causes the symptoms of the common cold,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 847–848, 1998.
- R. Jefferson, “Antivirals for the common cold,” in Common Cold: Verlag, R. W. O. Eccles, Ed., pp. 221–236, Birkhäuser, Basel, Switzerland, 2009.
- B. Weinberger, D. Herndler-Brandstetter, A. Schwanninger, D. Weiskopf, and B. Grubeck-Loebenstein, “Biology of immune responses to vaccines in elderly persons,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 1078–1084, 2008.
- B. Grubeck-Loebenstein and G. Wick, “The aging of the immune system,” Advances in Immunology, vol. 80, pp. 243–284, 2002.
- K. C. Bergmann, “Assessment of the clinical value of using an immunomodulator in recurrent respiratory infections,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 371, pp. 795–797, 1995.
- B. Barrett, “Medicinal properties of Echinacea: a critical review,” Phytomedicine, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 66–86, 2003.
- S. Foster, Echinacea Nature's Immune Enhancer, Healing Arts Press, Rochester, Vt, USA, 1991.
- C. Schoeneberger, “The influence of the immunostimulating effects of pressed juice from Echinacea purpurea on the course and severity of cold infections,” Forum Immunologie, vol. 8, pp. 18–22, 1992.
- U. A. Schmidt and M. Schenk N, “Pflanzliches Immunstimulans senkt Häufigkeit grippaler Infekte,” Natur Und GanzheitsMedizin, vol. 3, pp. 277–281, 1990.
- H. A. Cohen, I. Varsano, E. Kahan, E. M. Sarrell, and Y. Uziel, “Effectiveness of an herbal preparation containing Echinacea, propolis, and vitamin C in preventing respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 217–221, 2004.
- D. Melchart, E. Walther, K. Linde, R. Brandmaier, and C. Lersch, “Echinacea root extracts for the prevention of upper Respiratory tract Infections: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial,” Archives of Family Medicine, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 541–545, 1998.
- S. J. Sperber, L. P. Shah, R. D. Gilbert, T. W. Ritchey, and A. S. Monto, “Echinacea purpurea for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1367–1371, 2004.
- R. B. Turner, D. K. Riker, and J. D. Gangemi, “Ineffectiveness of Echinacea for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1708–1709, 2000.
- R. B. Turner, R. Bauer, K. Woelkart, T. C. Hulsey, and J. D. Gangemi, “An evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in experimental rhinovirus infections,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 4, pp. 341–348, 2005.
- R. Schoop, P. Klein, A. Suter, and S. L. Johnston, “Echinacea in the prevention of induced rhinovirus colds: a meta-analysis,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 174–183, 2006.
- R. J. Tallarida, R. B. Murray, and C. Eiben, “A scale for assessing the severity of diseases and adverse drug reactions. Application to drug benefit and risk,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 381–390, 1979.
- B. Barrett, B. Harahan, D. Brown, Z. Zhang, and R. Brown, “Sufficiently important difference for common cold: severity reduction,” Annals of Family Medicine, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 216–223, 2007.
- B. Barrett, S. Endrizzi, P. Andreoli, S. Barlow, and Z. Zhang, “Clinical significance of common cold treatment: professionals' opinions,” Wisconsin Medical Journal, vol. 106, no. 8, pp. 473–480, 2007.
- E. Tiralongo, R. A. Lea, S. S. Wee, M. M. Hanna, and L. R. Griffiths, “Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of Echinacea supplementation in air travellers,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 417267, 9 pages, 2012.
- EMEA, “Community herbal monograph on Echinacea purpurea (L.) moench, herba recens,” in HMPC, EMEA, Ed., pp. 1–6, 2008.
- D. J. Rowlands, “Rhinoviruses and cells: molecular aspects,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 152, no. 4, pp. S31–S35, 1995.
- T. J. Caruso and J. M. Gwaltney, “Treatment of the common cold with Echinacea: a structured review,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 807–810, 2005.
- M. B. H. Smith and W. Feldman, “Over-the-counter cold medications: a critical review of clinical trials between 1950 and 1991,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 269, no. 17, pp. 2258–2263, 1993.
- M. Sharma, S. A. Anderson, R. Schoop, and J. B. Hudson, “Induction of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines by respiratory viruses and reversal by standardized Echinacea, a potent antiviral herbal extract,” Antiviral Research, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 165–170, 2009.
- S. Pleschka, M. Stein, R. Schoop, and J. B. Hudson, “Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7) and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV),” Virology Journal, vol. 6, article 197, 2009.