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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 843048, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/843048
Research Article

Metabolic Profiling Study of Yang Deficiency Syndrome in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by NMR and Pattern Recognition

1Department of TCM, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China
2Department of Oncology, Zhejiang Provincial Hospital of TCM, Zhejiang 310006, China
3School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China

Received 4 June 2012; Revised 16 August 2012; Accepted 27 August 2012

Academic Editor: Byeongsang Oh

Copyright © 2012 Xueqiang Huang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study proposes a 1H NMR-based metabonomic approach to explore the biochemical characteristics of Yang deficiency syndrome in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on serum metabolic profiling. Serum samples from 21 cases of Yang deficiency syndrome HCC patients (YDS-HCC) and 21 cases of non-Yang deficiency syndrome HCC patients (NYDS-HCC) were analyzed using 1H NMR spectroscopy and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to visualize the variation patterns in metabolic profiling of sera from different groups. The differential metabolites were identified and the biochemical characteristics were analyzed. We found that the intensities of six metabolites (LDL/VLDL, isoleucine, lactate, lipids, choline, and glucose/sugars) in serum of Yang deficiency syndrome patients were lower than those of non-Yang deficiency syndrome patients. It implies that multiple metabolisms, mainly including lipid, amino acid, and energy metabolisms, are unbalanced or weakened in Yang deficiency syndrome patients with HCC. The decreased intensities of metabolites including LDL/VLDL, isoleucine, lactate, lipids, choline, and glucose/sugars in serum may be the distinctive metabolic variations of Yang deficiency syndrome patients with HCC. And these metabolites may be potential biomarkers for diagnosis of Yang deficiency syndrome in HCC.