Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 890361, 10 pages
Research Article

Antinociceptive Activity of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura Leaves and the Mechanisms of Action Involved

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
2Pharmacogenomics Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, 42300 Puncak Alam, Malaysia

Received 14 December 2011; Revised 4 February 2012; Accepted 7 February 2012

Academic Editor: Youn Chul Kim

Copyright © 2012 M. H. Mohd. Sani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae) has been traditionally used to relieve various pain-related ailments. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC) and to elucidate the possible mechanism of antinociception involved. The in vivo chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-, serotonin-induced paw licking test) and thermal (hot plate test) models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. The extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was administered orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant ( ) antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO) donor), NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS)), methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway), or their combination also caused significant ( ) change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception. In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway.