Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 890361, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/890361
Research Article

Antinociceptive Activity of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura Leaves and the Mechanisms of Action Involved

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
2Pharmacogenomics Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, 42300 Puncak Alam, Malaysia

Received 14 December 2011; Revised 4 February 2012; Accepted 7 February 2012

Academic Editor: Youn Chul Kim

Copyright © 2012 M. H. Mohd. Sani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. F. Morton, “Jamaica cherry,” in Fruits of Warm Climates, J. F. Morton, Ed., pp. 65–69, J.F. Morton, Miami, Fla, USA, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. Jensen, “Trees commonly cultivated in South East Asia: an illustrated field guide,” in FAO Corporate Document Repository, Craftsman Press, Bangkok, Thailand, 2nd edition, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  3. Z. A. Zakaria, S. Mustapha, M. R. Sulaiman, A. M. Mat Jais, M. N. Somchit, and F. C. Abdullah, “The antinociceptive action of aqueous extract from Muntingia calabura leaves: the role of opioid receptors,” Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 130–136, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. W. M. Verheij and R. E. Coronel, Plant Resources of South East Asia: Edible Fruits and Nuts, PROSEA, Bogor, Indonesia, 2nd edition, 1992.
  5. N. Kaneda, J. M. Pezzuto, D. D. Soejarto et al., “Plant anticancer agents, XLVIII. New cytotoxic flavonoids from Muntingia calabura roots,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 196–206, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. N. Su, E. J. Parka, J. S. Vigo et al., “Activity-guided isolation of the chemical constituents of Muntingia calabura using a quinone reductase induction assay,” Phytochemistry, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 335–341, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Z. A. Zakaria, M. R. Sulaiman, A. M. Mat Jais et al., “The antinociceptive activity of Muntingia calabura aqueous extract and the involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in its observed activity in mice,” Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 365–372, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Z. A. Zakaria, N. A. M. Nor Hazalin, S. N. H. M. Zaid et al., “Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Muntingia calabura aqueous extract in animal models,” Journal of Natural Medicines, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 443–448, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. Z. A. Zakaria, M. R. Sulaiman, M. H. Hassan et al., “Effects of various nonopioid receptor antagonists on the antinociceptive activity of Muntingia calabura extracts in mice,” Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 515–520, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Z. A. Zakaria, C. A. Fatimah, A. M. Mat Jais et al., “The in vitro antibacterial activity of Muntingia calabura extracts,” International Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 439–442, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. Z. A. Zakaria, A. M. Mohamed, N. S.M. Jamil et al., “In vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of the extracts of Muntingia calabura leaves,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 183–200, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. M. Zimmermann, “Ethical guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals,” Pain, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 109–110, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. G. Wilson, C. D. Bryant, W. R. Lariviere et al., “The heritability of antinociception II: pharmacogenetic mediation of three over-the-counter analgesics in mice,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 305, no. 2, pp. 755–764, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. E. P. Goncales, D. Araldi, R. B. Panatieri, J. B. T. Rocha, G. Zeni, and C. W. Nogueira, “Antinociceptive properties of acetylenic thiophene and furan derivatives: evidence for the mechanism of action,” Life Sciences, vol. 76, no. 19, pp. 2221–2234, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Beirith, A. R. S. Santos, and J. B. Calixto, “Mechanisms underlying the nociception and paw oedema caused by injection of glutamate into the mouse paw,” Brain Research, vol. 924, no. 2, pp. 219–228, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Z. A. Zakaria, R. N. S. Raden Mohd. Nor, G. Hanan Kumar et al., “Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of Melastoma malabathricum leaves aqueous extract in experimental animals,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 1291–1299, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. O. Collier, L. C. Dinneen, C. A. Johnson, and C. Schneider, “The abdominal constriction response and its suppression by analgesic drugs in the mouse,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 295–310, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. O. Vongtau, J. Abbah, I. E. Ngazal et al., “Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Parinari polyandra stem bark in rats and mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 115–121, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Ikeda, A. Ueno, H. Naraba, and S. Oh-Ishi, “Involvement of vanilloid receptor VR1 and prostanoids in the acid-induced writhing responses of mice,” Life Sciences, vol. 69, no. 24, pp. 2911–2919, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Vasudevan, K. K. Gunnam, and M. Parle, “Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of Daucus carota seeds extract,” Journal of Health Science, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 598–606, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. H. Choi, B. H. Jung, O. H. Kang et al., “The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Cynanchi paniculati Radix,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 971–975, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. N. Serhan and J. Z. Haeggstrom, “Lipid mediators in acute inflammation and resolution: eicosanoids, PAF, resolvins and proteins,” in fundamentals of Inflammation, C. N. Serhan, P. A. Ward et al., Eds., pp. 153–174, Cambridge University press, Cambridge, UK, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  23. R. Deraedt, S. Jouquey, F. Delevallee, and M. Flahaut, “Release of prostaglandins E and F in an algogenic reaction and its inhibition,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. G. Vogel and W. H. Vogel, “Pharmacological assays,” in Drug Discovery and Evaluation, pp. 360–418, J. A. Majors Company, Lewisville, Tex, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  25. M. J. Millan, “The induction of pain: an integrative review,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 1–164, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. A. Bentley, S. H. Newton, and J. Starr, “Evidence for an action of morphine and the enkephalins on sensory nerve endings in the mouse peritoneum,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 325–332, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. A. Bentley, S. H. Newton, and J. Starr, “Studies on the antinociceptive action of α-agonist drugs and their interactions with opioid mechanisms,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 125–134, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. F. Chen, H. Y. Tsai, and T. S. Wu, “Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities from roots of Angelica pubescens,” Planta Medica, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 2–8, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. le Bars, M. Gozariu, and S. W. Cadden, “Animal models of nociception,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 597–652, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. A. Giglio, H. L. A. Defino, C. A. da-Silva, A. S. de-Souza, and E. A. del Bel, “Behavioral and physiological methods for early quantitative assessment of spinal cord injury and prognosis in rats,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1613–1623, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. Hosseinzadeh and H. M. Younesi, “Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Crocus sativus L. stigma and petal extracts in mice,” BMC Pharmacology, vol. 2, article 7, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. G. Katzung, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Appleton and Lange, Stanford, Conn, USA, 6th edition, 1995.
  33. D. Dubuisson and S. G. Dennis, “The formalin test: a quantitative study of the analgesic effects of morphine, meperidine, and brain stem stimulation in rats and cats,” Pain, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 161–174, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. G. Heapy, A. Jamieson, and N. J. W. Russell, “Afferent C-fiber and A-delta activity in models of inflammation,” British Journal Pharmacology, vol. 90, article 164, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  35. A. B. Malmberg and T. L. Yaksh, “Antinociceptive actions of spinal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on the formalin test in the rat,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 263, no. 1, pp. 136–146, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. R. Verma, A. A. Joharapurkar, V. A. Chatpalliwar, and A. J. Asnani, “Antinociceptive activity of alcoholic extract of Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. in mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 298–301, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Hunskaar and K. Hole, “The formalin test in mice: dissociation between inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain,” Pain, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 103–114, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. Tang, Y. Chen, Z. Chen, P. M. Blumberg, A. P. Kozikowski, and Z. J. Wang, “Antinociceptive pharmacology of N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-N′-(4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-methoxybenzyl) thiourea, a high-affinity competitive antagonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 321, no. 2, pp. 791–798, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. J. Caterina, M. A. Schumacher, M. Tominaga, T. A. Rosen, J. D. Levine, and D. Julius, “The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway,” Nature, vol. 389, no. 6653, pp. 816–824, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Dray, “Mechanism of action of capsaicin-like molecules on sensory neurons,” Life Sciences, vol. 51, no. 23, pp. 1759–1765, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. Szolcsanyi, “Actions of capsaicin on sensory neurones,” in Capsaicin in the Study of Pain, J. N. Wood, Ed., pp. 1–26, Academic Press, London, UK, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  42. M. Cui, P. Honore, C. Zhong et al., “TRPV1 receptors in the CNS play a key role in broad-spectrum analgesia of TRPV1 antagonists,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 26, no. 37, pp. 9385–9393, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. M. Huang, T. Bisogno, M. Trevisani et al., “An endogenous capsaicin-like substance with high potency at recombinant and native vanilloid VR1 receptors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 12, pp. 8400–8405, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. N. Khairatkar-Joshi and A. Szallasi, “TRPV1 antagonists: the challenges for therapeutic targeting,” Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 14–22, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. D. Jhaveri, S. J. R. Elmes, D. A. Kendall, and V. Chapman, “Inhibition of peripheral vanilloid TRPV1 receptors reduces noxious heat-evoked responses of dorsal horn neurons in naïve, carrageenan-inflamed and neuropathic rats,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 361–370, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. D. Julius and A. I. Basbaum, “Molecular mechanisms of nociception,” Nature, vol. 413, no. 6852, pp. 203–210, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. J. Coderre, “The role of excitatory amino acid receptors and intracellular messengers in persistent nociception after tissue injury in rats,” Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 7, no. 3-4, pp. 229–246, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. Mao, D. D. Price, R. L. Hayes, J. Lu, and D. J. Mayer, “Differential roles of NMDA and non-NMDA receptor activation in induction and maintenance of thermal hyperalgesia in rats with painful peripheral mononeuropathy,” Brain Research, vol. 598, no. 1-2, pp. 271–278, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. L. M. Aanonsen, S. Lei, and G. L. Wilcox, “Excitatory amino acid receptors and nociceptive neurotransmission in rat spinal cord,” Pain, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 309–321, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. E. Fundytus, “Glutamate receptors and nociception: implications for the drug treatment of pain,” CNS Drugs, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 29–58, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Beirith, A. R. S. Santos, and J. B. Calixto, “Mechanisms underlying the nociception and paw oedema caused by injection of glutamate into the mouse paw,” Brain Research, vol. 924, no. 2, pp. 219–228, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. H. Dickenson and A. F. Sullivan, “Evidence for a role of the NMDA receptor in the frequency dependent potentiation of deep rat dorsal horn nociceptive neurones following C fibre stimulation,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1235–1238, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. N. Davies and D. Lodge, “Evidence for involvement of N-methylaspartate receptors in “wind-up” of class 2 neurones in the dorsal horn of the rat,” Brain Research, vol. 424, no. 2, pp. 402–406, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. V. Neugebauer, “Metabotropic glutamate receptors—important modulators of nociception and pain behavior,” Pain, vol. 98, no. 1-2, pp. 1–8, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. Bhave, F. Karim, S. M. Carlton, and R. W. Gereau IV, “Peripheral group I metabotropic glutamate receptors modulate nociception in mice,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 417–423, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Garthwaite and C. L. Boulton, “Nitric oxide signaling in the central nervous system,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 57, pp. 683–706, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. I. D. G. Duarte, B. B. Lorenzetti, and S. H. Ferreira, “Peripheral analgesia and activation of the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 186, no. 2-3, pp. 289–293, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. T. Meller and G. F. Gebhart, “Nitric oxide (NO) and nociceptive processing in the spinal cord,” Pain, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 127–136, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. Talarek and S. Fidecka, “Role of nitric oxide in benzodiazepines-induced antinociception in mice,” Polish Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 27–34, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. S. Patil, N. K. Jain, A. Singh, and S. K. Kulkarni, “Modulatory effect of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on sildenafil-induced antinociception,” Pharmacology, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 183–189, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. G. G. Vivancos, C. A. Parada, and S. H. Ferreira, “Opposite nociceptive effects of the arginine/NO/cGMP pathway stimulation in dermal and subcutaneous tissues,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 138, no. 7, pp. 1351–1357, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. T. M. Cunha, D. Roman-Campos, C. M. Lotufo et al., “Morphine peripheral analgesia depends on activation of the PI3Kγ/AKT/nNOS/NO/KATP signaling pathway,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 9, pp. 4442–4447, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. N. Abaclolu, B. Tun Tan, E. Akbulut, and I. Akici, “Participation of the components of L-arginine/nitric oxide/ cGMP cascade by chemically-induced abdominal constriction in the mouse,” Life Sciences, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 1127–1137, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Y. C. Liang, Y. T. Huang, S. H. Tsai, S. Y. Lin-Shiau, C. F. Chen, and J. K. Lin, “Suppression of inducible cyclooxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase by apigenin and related flavonoids in mouse macrophages,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1945–1952, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus