Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula) and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

Table 1

Plants with veterinary medicinal uses claimed in the areas studied. VR: veterinary reports; HR: human medicine reports (only those coincidental with veterinary ones); CI, CIg: cultural importance index [54] for each area and in all the territories studied (global); AE: Alt Empordà; AT: High River Ter Valley; MA: northeastern Mallorca (Mallorca); FO: Formentera. Asterisks (*) indicate the subspecies, species, genera, and families not reported as useful in veterinary in [27, 30], and crosses (+) indicate the subspecies, species, genera, and families reported only once as useful in veterinary in these quoted works (both signs are placed after the name of the category concerned).

Scientific names
(family, voucher specimen)
Catalan namesPart usedPharmaceutical formAdministration wayVeterinary useVRHRArea (CI, CIg)

Achillea ptarmica L* subsp. pyrenaica (Sibth. ex Godr. in Gren. et Godr.) Heimerl (Asteraceae, BCN 24701)camamilla, camamilla de muntanya, camamilla de RojàInflorescenceTisane (with Sambucus nigra)InternalAntidiarrhoeal10AT (0.05, 0.01)
Tisane (with sodium bicarbonate and olive oil)InternalLaxative10AT
Tisane (with Thymus vulgaris and Tilia platyphyllos)InternalSalutiferous11AT

Aeonium* arboreum (L.) Webb and Berthel. (Crassulaceae, BCN 81566)consolvaStemDirect ingestionInternalEgg calcifier30FO (0.21, 0.01)

Agave americana L.
(Agavaceae+, BCN 46860)
figuerassa grossa, figuerassa de margeLeafDirect applicationExternalVulnerary10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Agrimonia eupatoria L.+
(Rosaceae, BCN 29619)
gremònica, tapaculsLeafTisaneInternalAntidiarrhoeal11AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae, BCN 28655)cebaBulbTisaneInternalLaxative12AE
(0.006, 0.003)
Direct ingestionInternalAnticatarrhal (fowl pip)12MA
(0.024, 0.007)

Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae, BCN 24708)allBulbDirect applicationExternalFor stings22MA
(0.071, 0.02)
Direct ingestionInternalSalutiferous11MA
Liniment (with Senecio vulgaris)ExternalAnti-inflammatory (antigotose)11AT (0.017, 0.02)
Liniment (with Bryonia cretica or Umbilicus rupestris)ExternalTo heal wounds22AT

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.*
(Liliaceae, BCN 27242)
aloe veraLeafDirect applicationExternalBone reinforcer10MA
(0.024, 0.003)

Althaea officinalis L.
(Malvaceae, BCN 24709)
malvíRootLiniment (with Bryonia cretica or Umbilicus rupestris)ExternalTo heal wounds11AT
(0.017, 0.003

Alyssum maritimum (L.) Lam.* (Brassicaceae, BCN 29622)herba fetgeraFlowered aerial partDirect ingestionInternalAntiicteric10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Arum italicum Mill.+
(Araceae, BCN 32358)
xèrriaFruitOintmentExternalAnti-inflammatory11AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Arundo donax L.+ (Poaceae, BCN 24720)canyaRootTisaneInternalUnknown10AT
(0.017, 0.003)

Avena sativa L. (Poaceae, BCN 29839)civadaAerial partDirect ingestionInternalBlood pressure regulator10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Beta vulgaris L.+ subsp. vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae, BCN 24724)bledaLeafMedicinal brothInternalPostpartum coadjuvant (emollient)20AT
(0.033, 0.007)

Brassica oleracea L.+ subsp. oleracea (Brassicaceae, BCN 32181)bròquilFlowered aerial partTisaneInternalAntidiarrhoeal10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Bryonia cretica L.+ subsp. dioica (Jacq.) Tutin (Cucurbitaceae, BCN 24730)carbassí, carbassinaRootBathExternalAntiparasitic10AT (0.07, 0.01)
Liniment (with Umbilicus rupestris)ExternalTo heal wounds21AT
PoulticeExternalAntidermatose10AT

Calendula officinalis L.
(Asteraceae, BCN 24732)
calèndulaFlower headEssenceExternalAntitoxic11AT
(0.017, 0.003)

Capsella + bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. (Brassicaceae, BCN 24736)bossa de pastor, caps blancsFlowered aerial partTisaneInternalPostpartum coadjuvant (antihemorrhagic and antihypertensive)11AT
(0.017, 0.003)

Capsicum annuum L.
(Solanaceae, BCN 24737)
pebre coentFruitMaceration in oilExternalInsect repellent20MA
(0.05, 0.007)

Centaurium* erythraea Rafn subsp. erythraea (Gentianaceae+, BCN 29849)herba de santa AuraFlowered aerial partTisaneInternalHypertensive10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Ceratonia siliqua L.+
(Fabaceae, BCN 32177)
garrofa (fruit)GrainDirect ingestionInternalAntidiarrhoeal10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.+
(Rutaceae, BCN 46853)
llimoner, llimonera, llimona (fruit)Fruit juiceDirect applicationExternalOcular antiseptic10AE (0.006, 0.01)
Direct ingestionInternalInternal antiseptic11MA
(0.024, 0.01)
Fruit (epicarp)Medicinal soup (boiled rice with lemon peel)InternalAntidiarrhoeal10AT (0.017, 0.01)

Clematis flammula L.*
(Ranunculaceae, BCN 29856)
santjoanet, vidaubaNo dataPoulticeExternalFor swine erysipelas10MA
(0.024, 0.003)

Cucurbita maxima Duch. in Lam. (Cucurbitaceae, BCN-S 1499)rabequet (fruit)FruitOintmentExternalAnti-inflammatory11AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Cucurbita pepo L.+
(Cucurbitaceae, BCN 24757)
carbassaFruitOintmentExternalAntiseptic11AT
(0.017, 0.003)

Daphne gnidium L.
(Thymelaeaceae+, BCN 29687)
tintorell, matapollStemDirect applicationExternalVulnerary10AE (0.01, 0.01)
Antidiarrhoeal10AE, FO
(0.07, 0.01)

Diplotaxis* erucoides (L.) DC. (Brassicaceae, BCN 29861)cap blancFlowered aerial partDirect ingestionInternalGalactofugue10AE (0.006, 0.003)

Dracunculus* vulgaris Schott.
(Araceae, BCN 24765)
herba escurçoneraBulbEmbrocationExternalAntitoxic22AT (0.05, 0.01)
FlowerDirect applicationExternalAntitoxic11AT

Eriobotrya* japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (Rosaceae, BCN 66823)nisprero, nispro (fruit)LeafDecoctionInternalAntidiarrhoeal24MA (0.05, 0.007)

Eryngium campestre L.
(Apiaceae, BCN 31274)
espinacalFlowered aerial partOintmentExternalAntiophidian10AE (0.006, 0.03)
RootLinimentExternalAntiophidian22AT (0.12, 0.03)
Aerial partDirect applicationExternalAntiophidian44AT
Antialgic10AT

Eryngium bourgatii L.*
(Apiaceae, BCN 24881)
espinacalRootLinimentExternalAntiophidian11AT (0.08, 0.02)
Aerial partDirect applicationExternalAntiophidian44AT

Eucalyptus globulus Labill.+
(Myrtaceae, BCN 29696)
eucalipto, caliptoLeafVapourInternalAnticatarrhal247AE
(0.006, 0.007),
FO
(0.07, 0.007)

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
(Apiaceae, BCN 24888)
fonollAerial partDirect ingestionInternalAntidiarrhoeal10MA (0.02, 0.003)

Fraxinus excelsior L.
(Oleaceae, BCN 24890)
freixeCortical parenchymaLiniment (decoction with Bryonia cretica)ExternalTo heal wounds11AT (0.03, 0.007)
Bath (decoction with Quercus pubescens)ExternalTo heal wounds11AT

Gentiana acaulis L.+
(Gentianaceae+, BCN 24892)
gencianaNo dataNo dataExternalAntidermatose10AT (0.02, 0.003)

Gentiana lutea L.*
(Gentianaceae+, BCN 24893)
gencianaRootBathExternalVulnerary10AT (0.02, 0.003)

Geranium rotundifolium L.
(Geraniaceae, BCN 29701)
cicutaAerial partOintmentExternalVulnerary11AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Globularia alypum L.
(Globulariaceae*, BCN 53082)
cossiadaTender aerial partDirect ingestionInternalAnorexigen10MA
(0.02, 0.003)

Herniaria hirsuta L.* subsp. cinerea (DC.) Arcang. (Caryophyllaceae, BCN 23330)trencapedraAerial partTisaneInternalDiuretic25MA
(0.05, 0.003)

Herniaria glabra L.+
(Caryophyllaceae, BCN 24901)
herba de mil granes, herba de les mil granesAerial partTisaneInternalAntiicteric10AT (0.02, 0.003)

Hypericum perforatum L.
(Clusiaceae, BCN 29874)
herba de Sant JoanFlowered aerial partOintmentExternalFor mastitis10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Juniperus communis L. subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak*
(Cupressaceae, BCN 24910)
ginebre, ginebró, oli de ginebreFruitOintmentExternalAntidermatose32AT (0.05, 0.01)

Juniperus communis L. subsp. communis (Cupressaceae, BCN 29878)ginebreFruitOintmentExternalAnti-inflammatory/ Antialgic/ Antiecchymotic10AE (0.01, 0.007)
Vulnerary10AE

Juniperus oxycedrus L.+
(Cupressaceae, BCN 29879)
càdec, ginebróFruitOintmentExternalVulnerary10AE (0.03, 0.02)
Demulcent10AE
Antifungal10AE
Internal antiseptic10AE
For a sprained leg10AE

Lavandula latifolia Medic.+
(Lamiaceae, BCN 29882)
espígolFlowered stemDirect applicationExternalAntiophidian10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Lilium* pyrenaicum Gouan
(Liliaceae, BCN 24918)
consolta, consolta grogaBulbLinimentExternalTo heal wounds11AT (0.03, 0.007)
PoulticeExternalTo heal wounds11AT

Linum usitatissimum L.
(Linaceae, BCN 47281)
lli, llinet, oli de llinosa (product)GrainOintmentExternalVulnerary10AE (0.01, 0.007)
EnemaInternalLaxative16AE

Lithospermum* officinale L. (Boraginaceae, BCN 24922)herba pedrera, mill del sol, tabacAerial part with fruitsTisaneInternalPostpartum coadjuvant10AT
(0.006, 0.003)

Lythrum salicaria L.+
(Lythraceae, BCN 29724)
tapaculsFlowered aerial partTisaneInternalAntidiarrhoeal33AE (0.02, 0.01)

Malva sylvestris L.
(Malvaceae, BCN 24924)
malvaNo dataTisaneInternalAnti-inflammatory14FO (0.07, 0.003)
FlowerDecoctionInternalAntiseptic21AT (0.13, 0.03)
Flowered aerial partTisane (with Parietaria officinalis)InternalPostpartum coadjuvant21AT
Tisane (with Parietaria officinalis, Plantago lanceolata, and Plantago major)InternalPostpartum coadjuvant10AT
Diuretic10AT
Tisane (with Umbilicus rupestris)InternalPurgative10AT
Enema (with Parietaria officinalis)InternalPurgative10AT

Marrubium vulgare L.
(Lamiaceae, BCN 29726)
herba del mal roigAerial partTisaneInternalFor swine erysipelas10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Matricaria recutita L.+
(Asteraceae, BCN 29890)
camamillaInflorescenceDirect ingestionInternalDigestive128AE (0.01, 0.007)
Gastric and intestinal anti-inflammatory113AE

Mentha spicata L.*
(Lamiaceae, BCN 29995)
menta del consolTender aerial partTisaneInternalPostpartum coadjuvant10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Mentha suaveolens Ehrh.+
(Lamiaceae, BCN 29994)
herbasanaAerial partTisaneInternalAntihelminthic11MA
(0.02, 0.003)

Mercurialis annua L.
(Euphorbiaceae, BCN 29896)
murcarolAerial partTisaneInternalLaxative22AE (0.02, 0.01)
Direct ingestionInternalLaxative10AE

Meum + athamanticum Jacq. subsp. athamanticum (Apiaceae, BCN 24933)herba del meu, meuRootTisane (decoction with Senecio leucophyllus)InternalPostpartum coadjuvant (antiseptic)131AT (0.23, 0.05)
Whole plantTisane (decoction with Saxifraga longifolia)InternalPostpartum coadjuvant10AT

Nicotiana rustica L.+
(Solanaceae, BCN 46839)
tabac potaLeafDirect ingestionInternalEmetic11FO (0.14, 0.007)

Ocimum basilicum L.+
(Lamiaceae, BCN 29897)
fàbregaAerial partTisane (bath)ExternalPuerperal antiseptic10AE (0.01, 0.007)
External antiseptic10AE

Olea europaea L. var. europaea
(Oleaceae, BCN 29898)
olivera, oli d’oliva (product)FruitOintmentExternalFor mastitis10AE (0.06, 0.04)
Antiscabby10AE
Vulnerary10AE
Cicatrizing40AE, FO
(0.07, 0.04)
Antiseptic10AE
Direct applicationExternalHaemostatic10AT (0.03, 0.04)
TabletsInternalSalutiferous11AE
PoulticeExternalInsect repellent30AT, MA
(0.05, 0.04)

Origanum + vulgare* L.
(Lamiaceae, BCN 29742)
orengaFlowered stemDirect ingestionInternalPostpartum coadjuvant10AE
(0.006, 0.007)
Aerial partTisaneInternalInternal antiseptic12FO
(0.071, 0.007)

Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae, BCN 39208)arròsGrainTisane (boiled rice with lemon peel)InternalAntidiarrhoeal12AT (0.02, 0.003)

Parietaria officinalis L. subsp. judaica (L.) Béguinot (Urticaceae, BCN 29745)blet de paret, cama-rojaAerial partBoiled plant and its decoctionInternalLaxative11AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Parietaria officinalis L.
(Urticaceae, BCN 24942)
blet, blet de paretAerial partDecoction (with Malva sylvestris)InternalAntiseptic22AT (0.3, 0.05)
Medicinal broth (with Beta vulgaris, bread and olive oil)InternalPostpartum coadjuvant (emollient)91AT
Tisane (decoction with Malva sylvestris)InternalPostpartum coadjuvant10AT
Diuretic10AT
Purgative11AT
EnemaInternalPurgative11AT

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Hill+ (Apiaceae, BCN 29905)julivertLeafDirect ingestionInternalAphrodisiac10AE (0.01, 0.01)
Whole plantDirect applicationInternalAphrodisiac10AT (0.02, 0.01)
RootPoulticeExternalAntiparotid (for mumps)10AE

Pimpinella anisum L.
(Apiaceae, BCN 47278)
anís (fruit)FruitElixirInternalRuminant antistatic10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Pinus halepensis Mill.+
(Pinaceae, BCN 29826)
pi, pi bordBarkDirect applicationExternalEpithesis10AE
(0.006, 0.007)
ResinOintmentExternalExternal antiseptic13MA
(0.02, 0.007)

Pinus sp. (Pinaceae)pega negra (product)ResinOintmentExternalPuerperal antiseptic10AE (0.01, 0.007)
PatchExternalFor a sprained leg10AE

Pinus sylvestris L.+
(Pinaceae, BCN 27259)
pi, pi roig, pega negra (product)ResinPoulticeExternalEpithesis10AT (0.02, 0.003)

Plantago lanceolata L.
(Plantaginaceae, BCN 24949)
plantatge, plantatge estret, plantatge llargLeafTisane (with Parietaria officinalis)InternalPostpartum coadjuvant (diuretic)10AT (0.02, 0.003)

Plantago major L.
(Plantaginaceae, BCN 24950)
plantatge, plantatge ample, plantatge rodóLeafTisane (with Parietaria officinalis)InternalPostpartum coadjuvant (diuretic)10AT (0.02, 0.003)

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn (Polypodiaceae, BCN 46068)falgueraFrondDirect applicationExternalFor flea infestation11AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Quercus ilex L. subsp. ilex +
(Fagaceae, BCN 29932)
alzina, aulinaBarkTisane (bath)ExternalVulnerary62AE (0.05, 0.04)
TisaneInternalAntidiarrhoeal30AE
BathExternalAntiseptic31AT (0.05, 0.04)

Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.* (Fagaceae, BCN 24964)roureInternal barkBath (with Fraxinus excelsior)ExternalAntiseptic30AT (0.07, 0.01)
BathExternalCicatrizing11AT

Ramonda* myconi (L.) Reichenb. (Gesneriaceae, BCN 24965)orella d’ósAerial partTisaneInternalPostpartum coadjuvant (antiseptic)10AT (0.02, 0.003)

Ranunculus parnassifolius L.* (Ranunculaceae, BCN 24967)herba del mal graWhole plantLinimentExternalAntigangrenous11AT (0.2, 0.05)
Liniment, bathExternalAntiseptic45AT
Liniment, bathExternalResolutive45AT
Liniment, poulticeExternalAntineoplastic56AT

Rosmarinus officinalis L.
(Lamiaceae, BCN 29937)
romaníFlowered stemTisaneInternalPostpartum coadjuvant10AE
(0.006, 0.007)
Aerial partDirect ingestionInternalAntidiarrhoeal10FO (0.07, 0.007)

Ruta chalepensis L.
(Rutaceae, BCN 29940)
rudaAerial partDirect ingestionInternalCarminative10AE (0.006, 0.04)
Ruminant antistatic20MA (0.07, 0.04)
Direct applicationExternalPostpartum coadjuvant (antiseptic)30AT (0.10, 0.04)
Tranquilizer10FO (0.14, 0.04)
Flea repellent10FO
Embrocation (with Bryonia cretica or Umbilicus rupestris)ExternalTo heal wounds12AT
LinimentExternalTo heal wounds12AT
Anti-inflammatory10AT
No dataInternalAntihelminthic110MA

Sambucus nigra L.
(Caprifoliaceae, BCN 29943)
sabuquer, sabuc, flor de sabucInflorescenceFumigationExternalFor mastitis10AE (0.006, 0.03)
FlowerTisane (with Achillea ptarmica)InternalAntidiarrhoeal21AT (0.15, 0.03)
TisaneInternalIntestinal antiseptic214AT
Essence (with Achillea ptarmica)InternalAntidiarrhoeal21AT
EssenceInternalIntestinal antiseptic214AT
FruitSyrupInternalIntestinal antiseptic 19AT

Santolina chamaecyparissus L.* (Asteraceae, BCN 29944)camamillaFlower headTisaneInternalInternal antiseptic15FO (0.07, 0.01)
BathExternalOcular antiseptic28MA (0.07, 0.01)
EnemaInternalPuerperal antiseptic10MA

Saxifraga longifolia Lap.* (Saxifragaceae)corona de reiAerial partTisane (with Ramonda myconi or Meum athamanticum)InternalPostpartum coadjuvant (antiseptic)10AT (0.02, 0.003)

Saxifraga paniculata Mill.+ (Saxifragaceae, BCN 24992)corona de reiAerial partTisaneInternalIntestinal anti-inflammatory11AT (0.03, 0.007)
Postpartum coadjuvant10AT

Scabiosa columbaria L.*
(Dipsacaceae, BCN 24993)
escabiosa, escapiosa, herba d’escapiosaAerial partTisaneInternalAntiparasitic10AT (0.02, 0.003)

Sedum + sediforme (Jacq.) Pau* (Crassulaceae, BCN 29792)mort-i-viu, herba de Sant PereLeafPoulticeExternalAnti-inflammatory/
Antialgic/
Antiecchymotic
10AE (0.01, 0.007)
Antiseptic10AE

Sedum + telephium L.*
(Crassulaceae, BCN 24995)
arròs de paret, bàlsam, herba grassa, matafocsLeafOintmentExternalAntidermatose22AT (0.03, 0.007)

Sempervivum montanum L.* (Crassulaceae, BCN 24996)matafoc de muntanyaAerial partLinimentExternalAntidermatose10AT (0.02, 0.003)

Senecio leucophyllus L.*
(Asteraceae, BCN 24998)
herba blancaAerial partTisane (decoction with Meum athamanticum)InternalPostpartum coadjuvant10AT (0.02, 0.003)

Solidago virgaurea L.*
(Asteraceae, BCN 25007)
vara d’orFlowered aerial partTisaneInternalAntitoxic10AT (0.02, 0.003)

Sonchus oleraceus L.
(Asteraceae, BCN 29953)
llipsó, lletissóAerial partDirect ingestionInternalGalactogenous10AE (0.006, 0.01)
Liniment (with Senecio vulgaris)ExternalAnti-inflammatory11AT (0.05, 0.01)
Antigotose11AT
LinimentExternalVulnerary11AT

Sorbus aucuparia L.*
(Rosaceae, BCN 25009)
moixera de guillaAerial partDirect applicationExternalAntiviral10AT (0.02, 0.003)

Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip.+ (Asteraceae, BCN 29960)tanarida, herba del remuc, camamilla, camamilla amargant, camamilla borda, camamilla de parets, danarida, herba danaridaFlowered aerial partTisaneInternalRuminant antistatic30AE (0.08, 0.08)
Direct ingestionInternalRuminant antistatic70AE
TisaneInternalAntiicteric10AE
InternalAntidiarrhoeal20AT (0.15, 0.08)
InternalDigestive23AT
InternalAntinausea11AT
InternalUnknown50AT
TabletsInternalRuminant antistatic20AE
InternalAntiicteric10AE

Taraxacum* officinale Weber in Wiggers (Asteraceae, BCN 25948)dent de lleóLeafDirect ingestionInternalBone reinforcer11AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Thymus vulgaris L.
(Lamiaceae, BCN 29961)
farigola, frígula, frigolaFlowered stemTisane (bath)ExternalAntiseptic540AE (0.06, 0.03)
Ocular antiseptic210AE
Vulnerary18AE
Direct ingestionInternalCarminative11AE
Tender aerial partTisaneInternalPostpartum coadjuvant10AE

Thymus serpyllum L. subsp. chamaedrys (Fries) Čelak+ (Lamiaceae, BCN 25019)farigoleta, farigoleta de muntanya, serpóFlowered aerial partTisaneInternalAntidiarrhoeal11AT (0.02, 0.003)

Thymus serpyllum L. subsp. nervosus (Gay ex Willk.) Nyman*
(Lamiaceae, BCN 25020)
farigoleta, farigola de muntanya, farigola de pastor, farigolet, xerpollFlowered aerial partTisaneInternalAntidiarrhoeal31AT (0.05, 0.01)

Triticum aestivum L.
(Poaceae, BCN 29963)
blatBranPoulticeExternalDiuretic10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Umbilicus rupestris (Salisb.) Dandy+ (Crassulaceae, BCN 25029)barret de paretAerial partLiniment (boiled with olive oil and Allium sativum, Althaea officinalis, Bryonia cretica, Lilium pyrenaicum, Ruta chalepensis, Petroselinum crispum, Sedum sp.)ExternalTo heal wounds11AT (0.05, 0.01)
Direct applicationExternalTo heal wounds11AT
TisaneInternalPurgative10AT

Urginea maritima (L.) Baker
(Liliaceae, BCN 58049)
ceba marinaBulbMaceration in oilExternalInsect repellent20MA
(0.05, 0.007)

Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae, BCN 29814)ortiguesAerial partDirect applicationExternalAphrodisiac10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Veratrum album L.
(Liliaceae, BCN 25034)
veladreAerial partTisaneExternalAntiparasitic (for mange in sheep)10AT (0.05, 0.01)

Verbascum sinuatum L. (Scrophulariaceae, BCN 29967)trepóFlowerTisaneInternalAntidiarrhoeal11AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae, BCN 46826)faveraGrainDirect ingestionInternalFor studs’ fertility enhancement10AE
(0.006, 0.003)

Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae, BCN 29972)vinya, vi (product), vinagre (product)Fruit juiceVinegarExternalAnticatarrhal11AE (0.02, 0.02)
Diuretic10AE
Antiseptic11AE
Tranquilizer10FO (0.14, 0.02)
Medicinal wineInternalRestorative10MA (0.02, 0.02)
Blue comb10FO

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