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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 938574, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/938574
Review Article

The Effects of Tualang Honey on Bone Metabolism of Postmenopausal Women

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, The National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur Campus, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 7 June 2012; Revised 19 July 2012; Accepted 1 August 2012

Academic Editor: Srijit Das

Copyright © 2012 Nadia Mohd Effendy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Osteoporosis which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration with a consequent increase in bone fragility can be associated with various stimuli such as oxidative stress and inflammation. Postmenopausal women are more prone to osteoporosis due to reduction in estrogen which may further lead to elevation of oxidative stress and lipid accumulation which will promote osteoblasts apoptosis. Proinflammatory cytokines are elevated following estrogen deficiency. These cytokines are important determinants of osteoclasts differentiation and its bone resorption activity. The main treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis is estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Despite its effectiveness, ERT, however, can cause many adverse effects. Therefore, alternative treatment that is rich in antioxidant and can exert an anti-inflammatory effect can be given to replace the conventional ERT. Tualang honey is one of the best options available as it contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as a free radical scavenger, reducing the oxidative stress level as well as inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine. This will result in survival of osteoblasts, reduced osteoclastogenic activity, and consequently, reduce bone loss. Hence, Tualang honey can be used as an alternative treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with minimal side effects.