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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 109864, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/109864
Research Article

Cinnamic Acid Is Partially Involved in Propolis Immunomodulatory Action on Human Monocytes

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biosciences Institute, UNESP, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP, Brazil
2Flow Cytometry Laboratory, Botucatu Blood Center, Medical School, UNESP, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP, Brazil
3Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Received 17 January 2013; Revised 26 March 2013; Accepted 22 April 2013

Academic Editor: Zenon Czuba

Copyright © 2013 Bruno José Conti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Propolis is a beehive product used in traditional medicine due to its biological properties. It shows a complex chemical composition including phenolics, such as cinnamic acid (Ci). The mechanisms of action of propolis have been the subject of research recently; however, the involvement of Ci on propolis activity was not investigated on immune cells. Ci effects were evaluated on human monocytes, assessing the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), HLA-DR, and CD80. Cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-10) and the fungicidal activity of monocytes were evaluated as well. Data showed that Ci downregulated TLR-2, HLA-DR, and CD80 and upregulated TLR-4 expression by human monocytes. High concentrations of Ci inhibited both TNF-α and IL-10 production, whereas the same concentrations induced a higher fungicidal activity against Candida albicans. TNF-α and IL-10 production was decreased by blocking TLR-4, while the fungicidal activity of monocytes was not affected by blocking TLRs. These results suggest that Ci modulated antigen receptors, cytokine production, and the fungicidal activity of human monocytes depending on concentration, and TLR-4 may be involved in its mechanism of action. Ci seemed to be partially involved in propolis activities.