Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Standardized versus Individualized Acupuncture for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Table 1

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of trial groups.

CharacteristicsStandardized acupuncture
( )
Individualized acupuncture
( )

Age (years; mean ± sd)59.3 ± 12.056.1 ± 12.9
Gender ( (%))
 Female42 (53.8)45 (62.5)
 Male36 (46.2)27 (37.5)
BMI (kg/m²; mean ± sd)27.2 ± 4.627.0 ± 5.0
>10 years of school ( (%))10 (12.8)24 (33.3)
Size of household ( (%))
 Single person22 (28.2)16 (22.2)
 Multiperson55 (70.5)56 (77.7)
Average low back pain during the previous 7 days (VAS ; mean ± sd)60.7 ± 12.056.2 ± 10.0
Duration of low back pain (years; mean ± sd)16.8 ± 12.814.9 ± 11.8
Concomitant diseases ( (%))
 Diseases of the nervous system 0 (0)2 (2.7)
 Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases1 (1.2)3 (4.1)
 Diseases of musculoskeletal system12 (15.3)4 (5.5)
Sick leave days of previous 8 weeks (days; mean ± sd)8.9 ± 14.88.2 ± 13.5
Prior consultation because of low back pain ( (%))78 (100)69 (95.8)
Low back pain/disability (HFAQ#; mean ± sd)36.0 ± 19.137.4 ± 20.4
SF-36 quality of life (SF-36#; mean ± sd)
 Physical health 34.7 ± 7.735.7 ± 9.3
 Mental health 49.7 ± 11.146.2 ± 12.5
Experiences with acupuncture ( (%))60 (76.9)56 (77.7)
Expected effectiveness of acupuncture ( (%))
 Very effective32 (41.0)24 (33.3)
 Effective41 (52.5)48 (66.6)
 Less effective4 (5.1)0 (0)
 Ineffective0 (0)0 (0)
Preference ( (%))$
 Standardized acupuncture30 (38.4)35 (48.6)
 Individualized acupuncture46 (58.9)37 (51.3)

BMI: body mass index; VAS: visual analogue scale for assessing the average low back pain intensity; HFAQ: Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire; SF-36: 36-item quality-of-life questionnaire.
Lower values indicate better status.
#Higher values indicate better status.
$Missing answers add to 100%.

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.