Table 3: 12-week change in RDQ* associated with 6-week mediator values.

Main cohort**Saliva cohort***
Change in RDQ*SE95% CI valueChange in RDQ*SE95% CI value

Yoga versus self-care
 Fear avoidance0.100.05(−0.01, 0.20)0.0620.110.06(−0.01, 0.23)0.069
 Self-efficacy 0.21(−1.59, −0.74)0.0000003 0.27(−1.76, −0.69)0.00002
 Conscious awareness of body 0.06(−0.25, −0.02)0.027 0.08(−0.20, 0.10)0.491
 Psychological distress0.050.05(−0.04, 0.15)0.2870.020.06(−0.10, 0.14)0.700
 Perceived stress 0.080.07(−0.07, 0.22)0.2960.010.09(−0.17, 0.18)0.955
 Positive states of mind 0.15(−0.41, 0.17)0.418 0.19(−0.55, 0.22)0.402
 Improved sleep2.510.70(1.11, 3.90)0.000552.260.84(0.58, 3.94)0.009
 Hours of back exercise 0.263(−0.99, 0.06)0.081 0.32(−1.23, 0.05)0.070
 DHEA change in diurnal average (log scale) 0.89(−2.38, 1.18)0.502
 Average cortisol awakening response 0.41(−1.70, −0.06)0.035
Stretching versus self-care
 Fear avoidance0.200.05(0.10, 0.30)0.0000940.260.07( 0.13, 0.39)0.00017
 Self-efficacy 0.24(−1.19, −0.25)0.003 0.29(−1.32, −0.17)0.012
 Conscious awareness of body 0.05(−0.15, 0.04)0.2400.010.06(−0.12, 0.13)0.921
 Psychological distress0.050.04(−0.04, 0.13)0.2520.040.06(−0.08, 0.14)0.528
 Perceived stress 0.000.08(−0.16, 0.15)0.979 0.10(−0.23, 0.18)0.794
 Positive states of mind 0.15(−0.70, −0.12)0.0064 0.20(−0.83, −0.03)0.035
 Improved sleep2.430.66(1.12, 3.74)0.000382.550.80(0.95, 4.16)0.002
 Hours of back exercise 0.26(−1.04, −0.03)0.040 0.31(−0.92, 0.30)0.307
 DHEA change in diurnal average (log scale)1.200.77(−0.33, 2.73)0.122
 Average cortisol awakening response 0.39(−1.49, 0.07)0.073

RDQ: Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire.
Adjusted for baseline variables age, sex, BMI, back pain days, work type, pain traveling down the leg, bothersomeness, and RDQ.
Same adjustments as main cohort analysis with the addition of alcohol, tobacco and medication use on the day of saliva sample collection.