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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 146142, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/146142
Research Article

Attenuation of Proinflammatory Responses by S-[6]-Gingerol via Inhibition of ROS/NF-Kappa B/COX2 Activation in HuH7 Cells

1Heart Research Institute, Newtown, NSW 2042, Australia
2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
3Department of Endocrinology, Dezhou People’s Hospital, Dezhou, Shandong 253014, China
4School of Medical and Molecular Biosciences, University of Technology, P.O. Box 123, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia

Received 14 February 2013; Revised 17 May 2013; Accepted 24 May 2013

Academic Editor: Ke Ren

Copyright © 2013 Xiao-Hong Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Hepatic inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. S-[6]-Gingerol has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Important inflammatory mediators of interleukins include nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). We now explore the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects of S-[6]-gingerol in liver cells. Methods. HuH7 cells were stimulated with IL1β to establish an in vitro hepatic inflammatory model. Results. S-[6]-Gingerol attenuated IL1β-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in HuH7 cells, as evidenced by decreasing mRNA levels of inflammatory factor IL6, IL8, and SAA1, suppression of ROS generation, and increasing mRNA levels of DHCR24. In addition, S-[6]-gingerol reduced IL1β-induced COX2 upregulation as well as NFκB activity. Similar to the protective effects of S-[6]-gingerol, both NS-398 (a selective COX2 inhibitor) and PDTC (a selective NFκB inhibitor) suppressed mRNA levels of IL6, IL8, and SAA1. Importantly, PDTC attenuated IL1β-induced overexpression of COX2. Of particular note, the protective effect of S-[6]-gingerol against the IL1β-induced inflammatory response was similar to that of BHT, an ROS scavenger. Conclusions. The findings of this study demonstrate that S-[6]-gingerol protects HuH7 cells against IL1β-induced inflammatory insults through inhibition of the ROS/NFκB/COX2 pathway.