Table 2: Consensus of several commonly used herbs.

HerbEfficacyTraditional applicationEssential componentPharmacologic actionModern application

Ephedra [32]Antiperspiration, relieves lung congestion, antiasthmatic, diureticUsed for respiratory infections caused by “wind,” asthmatic cough and chest distress, edema caused by wind, asthma,
Ephedrine induces central nervous system excitation; improves myocardial contractility, increases cardiac output; acts on adreno-receptor; significantly relaxes bronchial smooth muscle.
Pseudoephedrine has better effects on dieresis compared with ephedrine; minimal erethitic effects on vascular system.
Mainly used for bronchial asthma, the common cold, allergic response, nasal congestion, edema, hypotension

Datura flower [33]Suppresses cough and relieves dyspnea; anesthetic and odynolytic; relieves spasms and painUsed for cough, asthma, abdominal pain; rheumatic aches, epilepsy, infantile convulsion, and
Analogous to an alpha-blocking agent, scopomamine has analgesic functions and can strengthen the analgesic action of sauteralgyl via blocking adrenergic receptors; reduces vagal inhibitory effects on the heart and stimulates the apneustic center.For gastric and duodenal ulcers and gall bladder disease, kidney disease, intestinal cramps, and can also be used for tremor palsy.

Coptis [34]Heat dampness, fire detoxification.For hotness and humidity, vomiting, dysentery jaundice, fever, coma, upset, insomnia, hematemesis, and epistaxis due to blood hot, toothache, microbe; antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, positive inotropic effect; detoxification, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and antiplatelet aggregation.Commonly used to treat bacterial gastroenteritis, dysentery, and other gastrointestinal diseases.

Aconite [35]Reviving yang for resuscitation, supplementing fire and strengthening yang, eliminating cold to stop pain. The most effective drug for recovering depleted yang.For excessive yin rejecting yang, loss of yang due to severe diaphoresis, vomiting and diarrhea, cold extremities, cold hypochondrium protrusion. Coryza due to insufficiency of yang, dorsal furuncle and pyocutaneous disease, and other unretractable cold a cardiotonic effect, dilates blood vessels, increases blood flow, improves blood circulation, antiarrhythmic, anticold, improves tolerance to hypoxia tolerance and anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.Clinically used to alleviate pain, especially suitable for the digestive system and cancer pain.

Honeysuckle [36]Heat clearing and detoxicating, detumescence, improves eyesight, dispels wind and heatFor anthracia and furunculosis, pharyngitis, hieropyra, hematochezia caused by pyretic toxicity, anemopyretic cold, fever caused by warm pathogenThe main component is volatile oil
Antimicrobial; anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects, strengthens the immune function, centra analepsia effects, lipid-lowering effect, antiendotoxin.For gastric and duodenal ulcers and gall bladder disease, kidney disease, intestinal cramps, and can also be used for tremor palsy.