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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine has retracted this article. Figure 5(a)-(iv) is reused from Figure 15A-II in an article by the same authors, Salama et al. [2].

An institutional investigation by the University of Malaya found there was no system to index and file data and images to avoid mislabeling and mishandling, which led to errors and duplication of research data. The authors did not thoroughly check the manuscript before submission.

The authors said that to save time, animal experiments were conducted on both plants at the same time and to cut costs, immunohistochemistry staining was performed at the same time on the liver tissues collected from all animals of both experiments using one kit and one protocol. In addition, the results of both experiments were very close and so they mixed up images between the two experiments.

View the full Retraction here.


  1. S. M. Salama, M. A. Abdulla, A. S. Alrashdi, and A. H. A. Hadi, “Mechanism of hepatoprotective effect of Boesenbergia rotunda in thioacetamide-induced liver damage in rats,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 157456, 13 pages, 2013.
  2. S. M. Salama, M. A. Abdulla, A. S. AlRashdi, S. Ismail, S. S. Alkiyumi, and S. Golbabapour, “Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa on thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis in rats,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, article no. 56, 2013.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 157456, 13 pages
Research Article

Mechanism of Hepatoprotective Effect of Boesenbergia rotunda in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

1Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 23 March 2013; Revised 2 June 2013; Accepted 17 June 2013

Academic Editor: Sedigheh Asgary

Copyright © 2013 Suzy M. Salama et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Researchers focused on developing traditional therapies as pharmacological medicines to treat liver cirrhosis. Objectives. Evaluating the hepatoprotective activity of Boesenbergia rotunda (BR) rhizome ethanolic extract on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with 200 mg/kg TAA 3 times/week and daily oral administration of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg of BR extract, and 50 mg/kg of the reference drug Silymarin for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, Masson’s trichrome staining was used to measure the degree of liver fibrosis. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes (CAT and GPx), nitrotyrosine, cytochrome (P450 2E1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1), and urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine were measured. Serum levels of transforming growth factor TGF-β1, nuclear transcription factor NF-κB, proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, and caspase-3 were evaluated. Serum protein expression and immunohistochemistry of proapoptotic Bax and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins were measured and confirmed by immunohistochemistry of Bax, Bcl-2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Results. BR treatment improved liver histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and biochemistry, triggered apoptosis, and inhibited cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins, and hepatocytes proliferation. Conclusion. Liver cirrhosis progression can be inhibited by the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BR ethanolic extract while preserving the normal liver status.