Table 2: Effects of acupressure on pain, disability, psychological function, and quality of life.

Outcome measure
(possible range)
GroupBaseline
Mean ± SD
4 weeks
Mean ± SD
4 weeks
% change
value1-month followup
Mean ± SD
1 month % change

Pain intensity
 Worst painTrue
 (0–10)Sham
 Average painTrue
 (0–10)Sham
 Overall pain intensityTrue
 (0–10)Sham
Back-specific disability
 RMDQTrue
 (0–24)Sham
 ODITrue
 (0-1)Sham
Psychological factors
 PCSTrue
 (0–52)Sham
Fear avoidance beliefs
 Physical activityTrue
 (0–24)Sham
 WorkTrue
 (0–42)Sham
Health related quality of life
 PhysicalTrue
 (0–100)Sham
 Psychological True
 (0–100)Sham
 Social True
 (0–100)Sham
 EnvironmentTrue
 (0–100)Sham

% change = (mean at 4 weeks − mean at baseline)/mean at baseline.
RMDQ: Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire.
ODI: Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index.
PCS: The pain and catastrophizing scale.
P value is calculated by the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for the null hypothesis: .