Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 213407, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/213407
Review Article

Tibetan Medicine: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Research Available in the West

Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, 10098 Berlin, Germany

Received 12 December 2012; Revised 17 February 2013; Accepted 18 February 2013

Academic Editor: Myeong Soo Lee

Copyright © 2013 K. Philip Reuter et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Dunkenberger, Das Tibetische Heilbuch, Windpferd Verlagsgesellschaft, Aitrang, Germany, 1999.
  2. P. Skinner, “Tibetan medicine,” in The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine, T. Gale, Ed., Longe, Detroit, Mich, USA, 2nd edition, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  3. V. Dash, Tibetan Medicine: Theory and Practice, Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi, India, 1997.
  4. G. Samel, Tibetan Medicine, Little, Brown & Company, London, UK, 2001.
  5. C. M. Witt, N. Berling, N. Thingo, M. Cuomo, and S. N. Willich, “Evaluation of medicinal plants as part of Tibetan medicine—prospective observational study in Sikkim and Nepal,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 59–65, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Asshauer, Tibets Sanfte Medizin: Heilkunst vom Dach der Welt, Oesch, Zürich, Switzerland, 4th edition, 2003.
  7. B. B. Gaitonde and P. N. Kurup, “Regional overview: South-East Asia region,” in WHO Global Atlas of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, G. Bodeker, C. Ong, C. Grundy et al., Eds., pp. 75–82, World Health Organisation, Centre for Human Development, Kobe, Japan, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  8. H. Schwabl, S. Geistlich, and E. McHugh, “Tibetische Arzneimittel in Europa: Historische, praktische und regulatorische Aspekte,” Forschende Komplementärmedizin, vol. 13, supplement 1, pp. 1–6, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  9. V. Badmaev Jr., “The continuation of the Badmaev family tradition in its 5th generation,” AyurVijnana, vol. 7, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  10. R. Saller, “Tibetische Heilmittel bei chronischen Erkrankungen, Einleitung,” in Tibetische Heilmittel bei Chronischen Erkrankungen, Zürich, Switzerland, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  11. J. Melzer, R. Brignoli, C. Diehm et al., “Treating intermittent claudication with Tibetan medicine Padma 28: does it work?” Atherosclerosis, vol. 189, no. 1, pp. 39–46, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. V. Badmaev, “Medicine tested by Science: an effective botanical treatment for circulatory deficience due to atherosclerosis,” Nutri-Cosme-Ceutici, 6.8.2.2002, Rome, Italy, 2002.
  13. F. Ueberall, D. Fuchs, and C. Vennos, “Das anti-inflammatorische Potential von Padma 28: Übersicht experimenteller Daten zur antiatherogenen Wirkung und Diskussion des Vielstoffkonzepts,” Forschende Komplementärmedizin, vol. 13, supplement 1, pp. 7–12, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  14. A. Weseler, R. Saller, and J. Reichling, “Comparative investigation of the antimicrobial activity of Padma 28 and selected European herbal drugs,” Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 346–351, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  15. M. B. Röösli, Systematische Übersichtsarbeit: Klinische Studien zur Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit des phytotherapeutischen Kombinationspräparats PADMA 28, Universität Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland, 2009.
  16. C. M. Witt, S. Craig, and M. Cuomu, Tibetan Medicine Research—From Current Evidence to Future Strategies: Advice from an Interdisciplinary Conference, KVC Verlag, Essen, Germany, 2012.
  17. S. Geistlich and H. Schwabl, “Von der Tradition zur ‘evidence-based medicine’,” Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Ganzheitsmedizin, vol. 15, pp. 133–140, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  18. B. Gerke, “Tradition and modernity in Mongolian medicine,” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 743–749, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  19. E. M. Plakun, “Psychiatry in Tibetan Buddhism: madness and its cure seen through the lens of religious and national history,” The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 415–430, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Saxer, Journeys with Tibetan medicine [M.S. thesis], 2004, http://www.anyma.ch/journeys/doc/thesis.pdf.
  21. I. A. Navchoo and G. M. Buth, “Medicinal system of Ladakh, India,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 137–146, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. United Nations, “World, Map No. 4170,” October 2006, http://www.scribd.com/doc/217671/Map-The-World.
  23. Wolters Kluwer, Ovid Technologies, 2010, http://www.ovid.com.
  24. DIMDI, Datenbanken A-Z, 2010, http://www.dimdi.de/static/de/db/dbinfo/index.htm.
  25. Bibliothek der Charité, Datenbanken, 2010, http://www.charite.de/bibliothek/datenbanken.htm.
  26. ZB MED, MedPilot, 2010, http://www.medpilot.de.
  27. Google, Google Scholar, 2010, http://scholar.google.com.
  28. A. G. Padma, Padma 28—Literaturverzeichnis 2/09, 2009, http://www.padma.ch/Literature/Literature_Padma28_Feb2009.pdf.
  29. J. Aschoff, Tibetische Medizin—Kommentierte Bibliographie, Fabri, Ulm, Germany, 1996.
  30. Institut für Ost-West-Medizin, Kursreihe Einführung in die Tibetische Medizin, 2008, http://www.ostwestmedizin.de/.
  31. Interessengemeinschaft Tibetische Medizin, Programm im Detail: der Ausbildung zur Therapeutin tibetische Medizin, Interessengemeinschaft Tibetische Medizin, 2011, http://www.ig-tibetische-medizin.ch/images/ausbildung/Ausbildung_Uebersicht.pdf.
  32. New Yuthog Institute, 4 year Tibetan Medicine course, 2011, http://www.newyuthok.it/en/ctibetanmedicine.html.
  33. Access, Microsoft, Redmond, Wash, USA, 2003.
  34. Excel, Microsoft, Redmond, Wash, USA, 2003.
  35. M. Ekkernkamp, D. Lühmann, and H. Raspe, Methodenmanual für HTA-Schnellverfahren' und exemplarisches Kurz-HTA'. Die Rolle der quantitativen Ultraschallverfahren zur Ermittlung des Risikos für osteoporotische Frakturen, vol. 34, Asgard Verlag, Sankt Augustin, Germany, 2003.
  36. D. Moher, A. R. Jadad, and P. Tugwell, “Assessing the quality of randomized controlled trials. Current issues and future directions,” International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 195–208, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  37. A. R. Jadad, R. A. Moore, D. Carroll et al., “Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?” Controlled Clinical Trials, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. F. Hürlimann, “Eine lamaistische Rezeptformel zur Behandlung der peripheren arteriellen Verschlusskrankheit,” Schweizerische Rundschau Fur Medizin, vol. 67, pp. 1407–1409, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  39. E. Leeman, Y. Dhonden, and M. Woolf, A Phase I Trial of Tibetan Medicine for Advanced Breast Cancer, 2001, http://www.cbcrp.org/research/PageGrant.asp?grant_id=90.
  40. C. Bommeli, R. Bohnsack, and C. Kolb, “Praxiserfahrungen mit einem Vielstoffpräparat aus der tibetischen Heilkunde,” Erfahrungsheilkunde, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 745–756, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  41. H. Flück and W. P. Bubb, “Eine lamaistische Rezeptformel zur Behandlung der chronischen Verstopfung,” Schweizerische Rundschau für Medizin Praxis, vol. 59, no. 33, pp. 1190–1193, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  42. F. Li, “Ergebnisse der Behandlung von symptomatischen Patienten mit tibetanischer Medizin, die an einer Infektion mit Helicobacter Pylori (HP) leiden,” Deutsche Zeitschrift für Akupunktur, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 183–185, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. T. Namdul, A. Sood, L. Ramakrishnan et al., “Efficacy of Tibetan medicine as an adjunct in the treatment of type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 175–176, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. S. Miller, C. Tudor, V. Thorsten et al., “Randomized double masked trial of Zhi Byed 11, a Tibetan traditional medicine, versus misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage in Lhasa, Tibet,” Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 133.e1–141.e1, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. D. Neshar, “Clinical case Study of Cancer (Dres-ned) patients treated at Men-Tsee-Khang's Bangalore Branch Clinic for the period of 27 month from November 2002 to February 2005,” Journal of Men-Tsee-Khang, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 50–68, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  46. W. Prusek, A. Jankowski, G. Radomska et al., “Immunostimulation in recurrent respiratory tract infections therapy in children,” Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 289-–2302, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  47. W. Brzosko and A. Jankowski, “PADMA 28 bei chronischer Hepatitis B: Klinische und immunologische Wirkungen,” Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Ganzheitsmedizin, vol. 7-8, supplement 1, pp. 13–14, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  48. D. Neshar, “Efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine against diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Men-Tsee-Khang, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 25–35, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  49. H. P. Brunner-La Rocca, R. Schindler, M. Schlumpf et al., “Effects of the Tibetan herbal preparation Padma 28 on blood lipids and lipid oxidisability in subjects with mild hypercholesterolaemia,” VASA, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 11–17, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. T. Korwin-Piotrowska, D. Nocon, A. Stankowska-Chomicz, A. Starkiewicz, J. Wojcicki, and L. Samochowiec, “Experience of Padma 28 in multiple sclerosis,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 133–136, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Mehlsen, H. Drabaek, J. Petersen et al., “Der Effekt einer tibetischen Kräutermischung (Padma 28) auf die Gehstrecke bei stabiler Claudication intermittens,” Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 240–245, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. S. Sallon, G. Beer, J. Rosenfeld et al., “The efficacy of Padma 28, a herbal preparation, in the treatment of intermittent claudication: a controlled double-blind pilot study with objective assessment of chronic occlusive arterial disease patients,” Journal of Vascular Investigation, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 129–136, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. L. Samochowiec, J. Wojicki, and K. Kosminder, “Wirksamkeitsprüfung von Padma 28 bei der Behandlung von Patienten mit chronischen arteriellen Durchblungsstörungen,” Polbiopharm Reports, no. 22, pp. 3–14, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  54. R. Schrader, B. Nachbur, and F. Mahler, “Die Wirkung des tibetanischen Kräuterpraparates Padma 28 auf die Claudicatio intermittens,” Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 115, no. 22, pp. 752–756, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  55. H. S. Smulski and J. Wojcicki, “Plazebokontrollierte Doppelblindstudie zur Wirkung des tibetanischen Kräuterpräparates Padma 28 auf die Claudication intermittens,” Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, vol. 1, pp. 18–26, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  56. W. Split, M. Szydlowska, and W. Brzosko, “The estimation of the action of Padma-28 in the treatment of ischaemic brain stroke,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 5, supplement 1, p. 9, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  57. S. Sallon, E. Ben-Arye, R. Davidson et al., “A novel treatment for constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome using Padma Lax, a Tibetan herbal formula,” Digestion, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 161–171, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. M. Ryan, “Efficacy of the Tibetan treatment for arthritis,” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 535–539, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. R. Sangmo, D. Dolma, T. Namdul et al., “Clinical trial of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B,” Journal of Men-Tsee-Khang, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 32–49, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  60. L. Cohen, C. Warneke, R. T. Fouladi et al., “Psychological adjustment and sleep quality in a randomized trial of the effects of a Tibetan yoga intervention in patients with lymphoma,” Cancer, vol. 100, no. 10, pp. 2253–2260, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. J. Wojcicki, L. Samochowiec, and C. Dolata, “Controlled double-blind study of Padma 28 in angina pectoris,” Herba Polonica, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 107–113, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  62. C. Pauwvliet, “A pilot study on the effect of Tibetan medicine on patients with rheumatic diseases,” in Tibetan Medicine, J. Aschoff and I. Rösing, Eds., pp. 39–49, Fabri, Ulm, Germany, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  63. J. Aschoff, T. Tashigang, and J. Maier, “Clinical trial in migraine prophylaxis with a multicomponent Tibetan jewel-pill. Transfer problems of Tibetan to Western medicine, demonstrated, “pars pro toto” on the Aconite medical plants in our Tibetan prescription,” in Tibetan Medicine,Verlag, J. Aschoff and I. Rösing, Eds., pp. 21–38, Fabri, Ulm, Germany, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  64. S. Jankowski, A. Jankowski, S. Zielinska, M. Walczuk, and W. J. Brzosko, “Influence of Padma 28 on the spontaneous bactericidal activity of blood serum in children suffering from recurrent infections of the respiratory tract,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 120–123, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. H. Mansfeld, “Beeinflussung rezidivierender Atemwegsinfekte bei Kindern durch Immunostimulation,” Therapeutikon, vol. 2, p. 707, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  66. W. J. Brzosko, A. Jankowski, W. Prusek, and H. Ollendiek, “Influence of Padma 28 and the thymus extract on clinical and laboratory parameters of children with juvenile chronic arthritis,” International Journal of Immunotherapy, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 143–147, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. P. Schleicher, “Wirkung von Padma 28 auf das Immunsystem bei Patienten mit Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrom im Stadium des Pre-AIDS,” Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Ganzheitsmedizin, vol. 2, p. 58, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  68. F. Füllemann, “Padma 28 in der Behandlung von chronischen Zahnpulpitiden: Eine Praxisbeobachtung an 49 Fällen,” Forschende Komplementärmedizin, vol. 13, supplement 1, pp. 28–30, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  69. A. Gladysz, J. Juszczyk, and W. J. Brzosko, “Influence of Padma 28 on patients with chronic active hepatitis B,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 244–247, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. Jankowski, E. Drabik, Z. Szysko et al., “Die Behandlung rezidivierender Atemwegsinfektionen bei Kindern durch Aktivierung des Immunsystems,” Therapiewoche Schweiz, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 25–32, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  71. A. Jankowski, R. Jankowska, and W. Brzosko, “Behandlung infektanfälliger Kinder mit Padma 28,” Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Ganzheitsmedizin, vol. 7-8, supplement 1, pp. 22–23, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  72. S. Feldhaus, “Ganzheitliches Therapiekonzept bei pAVK,” Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Ganzheitsmedizin, vol. 16, p. 72, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  73. M. Günsche, “Therapieresistenz bei Tagesmüdigkeit, Antriebsschwäche und Konzentrationsschwierigkeit,” Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Ganzheitsmedizin, vol. 17, p. 90, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  74. J. Rüttgers, “Crux medicorum: das offene Bein,” Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Ganzheitsmedizin, vol. 16, pp. 278–280, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  75. S. Feldhaus, “Behandlung der chronischen Obstipation eines tetraplegischen Patienten mit dem tibetischen Arzneimittel Padma Lax—ein Fallbericht,” Forschende Komplementärmedizin, vol. 13, supplement 1, pp. 31–32, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. S. Changbar, “Tibetan medicine in the treatment of aplastic anaemia,” AyurVijnana, vol. 4, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  77. M. Ryan, “Measuring the efficacy of Tibetan treatment for acute hepatitis,” in Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference on Ethnic Culture and Folk Knowledge of Russian Acadamy of Sciences, Moscow University Press, Moscow, Russia, 1994.
  78. S. Sommogy and P. Schleicher, “Therapie der peripheren arteriellen Verschlusskrankheit (PAVK) mit Padma 28,” Bericht 26.6, Abteilung für Gefäßchirurgie, Technische Univerität München und Zytognost GmbH, München, Germany, 1990.
  79. L. Samochowiec, J. Wojcicki, K. Kosmider et al., “Wirksamkeitsprüfung von Padma 28 bei der Behandlung von Patienten mit chronischen arteriellen Durchblutungsstörungen,” Herba Polonica, vol. 33, pp. 29–41, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  80. K. Winther, A. Kharazmi, H. Himmelstrup, H. Drabaek, and J. Mehlsen, “PADMA-28, a botanical compound, decreases the oxidative burst response of monocytes and improves fibrinolysis in patients with stable intermittent claudication,” Fibrinolysis, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 47–49, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. H. Panjwani and W. Brzosko, “Influence of selected immunocorrecting drugs on intellectual function of the brain due to arteriosclerosis,” Nowiny Lekarskie, vol. 5, pp. 665–670, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  82. J. Hasik, H. Klinkiewicz, K. Linke et al., “Effectiveness of duodenal ulcer disease treatment by PADMA 28,” Nowiny Lekarskie, vol. 2, pp. 40–44, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  83. T. Kalsang, Interview with KPR [pers. comm.], Dharamsala, India, October 2008.
  84. T. Tamdin, “Challenges and prospects of research in Tibetan medicine,” in Tibetische Heilmittel bei Chronischen Erkrankungen, Zürich, Switzerland, November 2005. View at Google Scholar