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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 256287, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/256287
Research Article

Apolar Bioactive Fraction of Melipona scutellaris Geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

1Department of Physiological Sciences, Dentistry School of Piracicaba, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Avenida Limeira 901, 13414-903 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
2College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas, 37130-000 Alfenas, MG, Brazil
3Department of Agri-Food Industry, Food, and Nutrition, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Avenida Pádua Dias 11, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

Received 2 April 2013; Revised 22 May 2013; Accepted 22 May 2013

Academic Editor: Wojciech Król

Copyright © 2013 Marcos Guilherme da Cunha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bioactive nonpolar fraction of geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The ethanolic extract of Melipona scutellaris geopropolis was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition, thus obtaining the bioactive hexane fraction (HF) possessing antimicrobial activity. The effects of HF on S. mutans UA159 biofilms generated on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs were analyzed by inhibition of formation, killing assay, and glycolytic pH-drop assays. Furthermore, biofilms treated with vehicle control and HF were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HF at 250 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL caused 38% and 53% reduction in the biomass of biofilm, respectively, when compared to vehicle control ( ) subsequently observed at SEM images, and this reduction was noticed in the amounts of extracellular alkali-soluble glucans, intracellular iodophilic polysaccharides, and proteins. In addition, the S. mutans viability (killing assay) and acid production by glycolytic pH drop were not affected ( ). In conclusion, the bioactive HF of geopropolis was promising to control the S. mutans biofilm formation, without affecting the microbial population but interfering with its structure by reducing the biochemical content of biofilm matrix.