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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 275431, 9 pages
Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effects of Swimming Exercise against D-Galactose-Induced Senescence Rat Model

1Graduate Institute of Sports Science, College of Exercise and Health Sciences, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan 33301, Taiwan
2Department of Food Science, Tunghai University, 181, Section 3, Taichung Kan Road, Taichung 40704, Taiwan
3Graduate Institute of Athletics and Coaching Science, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan 33301, Taiwan
4Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
5Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
6Department of Sports Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
7Department of Hospitality, Tunghai University, Taichung 40704, Taiwan

Received 18 February 2013; Accepted 11 May 2013

Academic Editor: Kenji Watanabe

Copyright © 2013 Chi-Chang Huang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study investigates whether a 12-week swimming exercise training can prevent liver damage or senescence associated biomarkers in an experimental aging model in rats. Twenty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: vehicle treatment with sedentary control (C, ), aging induction with sedentary (A, ), vehicle treatment with swimming exercise (SW, ), and aging induction with swimming exercise (A + SW, ). Rats in groups A and AS received intraperitoneal D-galactose injections (150 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks to induce aging. Rats in groups SW and A + SW were subjected to swimming exercise training for 12 weeks. Body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat mass, blood biochemistry, and liver pathology were performed at the end of the experiment. Hepatic senescence protein markers such as β-galactosidase, p53, and p21, as well as the inflammatory mediator, IL-6, were examined. The D-galactose-treated rats exhibited increases in AST and γ-GT plasma levels and β-galactosidase protein expression compared to the control group. Swimming exercise significantly reduced BW, epididymal fat mass, γ-GT activity, and p53, p21, and IL-6 protein levels compared to the aging group. These results suggest that a 12-week swimming exercise program suppresses senescence markers and downregulates inflammatory mediator in the liver tissues of D-galactose-induced aging rats.