Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

German Psychiatrists’ Observation and Interpretation of Religiosity/Spirituality

Table 3

Psychiatrists’ observations and interpretations of the influence of ReS on patients’ health.

Questionnaire ItemsaAnalysis
MeanbCorrelation with intrinsic religiosityc,d

Mention of religiosity/spirituality
Patients mentioned ReS issues such as God, prayer, meditation, the Bible, and so forth.2.96 ± 0.68 0.225*
Positive influence of religiosity/spirituality
The influence of ReS on health is generally positive.3.14 ± 0.730.418***
ReS helps patients to cope with and endure illness. 3.52 ± 0.610.388***
Patients have received emotional or practical support from their religious community.3.20 ± 0.710.229*
ReS gives patients a positive, hopeful state of mind.3.34 ± 0.630.374***
ReS helps patients to prevent “hard” medical outcomes like death via suicide.3.11 ± 0.750.301**
Suffering from an illness often leads patients to ReS.e2.84 ± 0.650.073
Negative influence of religiosity/spirituality
ReS leads patients to refuse, delay, or stop medically indicated therapy.2.25 ± 0.63−0.301**
Patients used ReS as a reason to avoid taking responsibility for their own health.2.13 ± 0.62−0.337**

Preceded by “considering your experience….”
bResponse categories are 1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = often, and 5 = always.
cCorrelation between the sum of psychiatrists’ own intrinsic religiosity scores and their response to the items.
dSpearman’s correlation (1 tailed): *** , ** , * .
eIn the original questionnaire, this item asked whether “religiosity/spirituality causes guilt, anxiety, or other negative emotions that lead to increased patient suffering” and belonged to the category: negative influence. Based on comments from the respondents of the pilot study and other comments from a professional team, this question was replaced by the item “Suffering from an illness often leads patients to religiosity/spirituality.”

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