Figure 2: Effects of quercetin on the increased expression of FoxO1, Pdx1, and insulin gene in islets of fructose-fed rats. Rats were fed with 10% (wt/vol) fructose for 8 weeks, treated with 50 or 100 mg/kg quercetin in the last 4 weeks, and injected i.p. with 100 μg/kg leptin 30 min before they were anesthetized. (a) The bands of Western blot analyses for protein levels of Akt, p-Akt, FoxO1, p-FoxO1, and Pdx1 in islets of rats. (b, c) The intensity of bands was measured, and the ratio of treated samples to untreated control was showed. (d) Real-time PCR for gene expression levels of Pdx1 and Ins1/2 in islets of rats. Islets were from three to four individual mice in each group, and data were presented as the mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. # and ## relative to untreated control group; * and ** relative to fructose-fed rats treated with water (vehicle).