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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 391247, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/391247
Research Article

Persea americana Mill. Seed: Fractionation, Characterization, and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts

1Institute of Food Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Schleinitzstraße 20, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
2Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco (CIATEJ), 44270 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
3Institute for Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry, University of Muenster, Hittorfstraße 56, 48149 Muenster, Germany

Received 20 May 2013; Revised 29 August 2013; Accepted 10 September 2013

Academic Editor: Evan Paul Cherniack

Copyright © 2013 Maria del R. Ramos-Jerz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The methanol-water partition (M) from avocado seeds and HSCCC fraction 3 (M.3) were mostly composed of chlorogenic acid and its isomers. Both reduced NHDF but enhanced HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation. HSCCC fraction M.2 composed of quinic acid among chlorogenic acid and its isomers inhibited proliferation and directly induced differentiation of keratinocytes as observed on gene and protein level. Furthermore, M.2 increased NHDF proliferation via upregulation of growth factor receptors. Salidrosides and ABA derivatives present in HSCCC fraction M.6 increased NHDF and keratinocyte proliferation that resulted in differentiation. The residual solvent fraction M.7 contained among low concentrations of ABA derivatives high amounts of proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as an A-type trimer and stimulated proliferation of normal cells and inhibited the proliferation of immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes.