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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 394865, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/394865
Research Article

Antiherpetic Effects of Gynura procumbens

1Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 447 Sri Ayudhya Road, Rajathevi District, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
2Pharmaceutical and Natural Products Department, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
3Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
4Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Prannok Road, Bangkok Noi District, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
5Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
6Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Victorian College of Pharmacy, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3052, Australia
7Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Freiburg University, 79104 Freiburg, Germany

Received 1 March 2013; Revised 18 July 2013; Accepted 23 July 2013

Academic Editor: Ludger Beerhues

Copyright © 2013 Siripen Jarikasem et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The ethanol extract of Gynura procumbens showed virucidal and antireplicative actions against herpes simplex virus HSV-1 and HSV-2. It was further chromatographed on MCI gel CHP20P column giving the extract fractions F1 (water), F2 (water-methanol) F3 (methanol), and F4 (ethyl acetate). All but F1 had virucidal action against both viral types. We reported here the active compounds from F2 and F3. The antiherpetic compounds of F2 was a mixture of dicaffeoylquinic acids with virucidal and antireplicative actions against HSV-2 (IC50 96.0 and 61.0 μg/mL, resp.) Virucidal compounds of F3 were a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (IC50 250.0 μg/mL against HSV-1), a mixture of β-sitosteryl and stigmasteryl glucosides (IC50 50.0 μg/mL against HSV-2) and 1, 2-bis-dodecanoyl-3-α-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (IC50 of 40.0 μg/mL against HSV-2). Herbal products containing 1 and 2% of standardized ethanol extract were prepared. Double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial of the products was performed in patients with recurrent herpes labialis. Results showed that the number of patients, whose lesions healed within 7 days and the average healing time of both groups differed insignificantly. Viral culture on D7 indicated a decrease of infected patients from 48.7% to 7.69% in treated group whereas in placebo group the infected patients decreased from 31.25% to 20.00%. The viral reduction in treated group indicated the benefit of the product. Insignificant result might arise from a low number of participated patients and insufficient concentration of plant extract in herbal product.