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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 481491, 14 pages
Research Article

Validation of the Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire: Does the Traditional Chinese Medicine Concept of Body Constitution Exist?

1Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
2Chinese Medicine Department and Integrative Medicine, the Hong Kong Hospital Authority, Hong Kong
3Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of TCM, Hong Kong

Received 4 December 2012; Accepted 26 February 2013

Academic Editor: Aiping Lu

Copyright © 2013 Wendy Wong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The study aims to adapt and validate the Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (CCMQ) in Hong Kong Chinese people. 10 patients and 10 Chinese medicine practitioners (CMP) confirmed the content validity (CVI: 50%–100%) of CCMQ. 1084 HK subjects completed a cross-sectional study with 98.6% who could be classified into one or more BC types. Scaling success rates were 85.7%–100% for the 9 BC scales. Construct validity was supported by moderate correlations between CCMQ and SF-12v2 scores. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a reproducible structure as hypothesized. People with gentleness BC type had better health-related quality of life, HRQOL, than those with other (imbalanced) BC types. Internal consistency (reliability) (Cronbach’s alpha  >  0.6) and test-retest reliability were also satisfactory (ICC > 0.6) for all scales. However, the sensitivity and specificity in predicting the BC types diagnosed by CMP were only fair, ranging from 42.7% to 82.7%. 27.6% of subjects had a change from the imbalanced BC types to gentleness BC type after 6 months. The CCMQ was adapted for HK Chinese people and proved to be valid, reliable, and responsive. People classified to have imbalanced BC types had significantly lower HRQOL than gentleness BC type, which supported the validity and importance of the TCM concept of the physiological BC type.