Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 481491, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/481491
Research Article

Validation of the Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire: Does the Traditional Chinese Medicine Concept of Body Constitution Exist?

1Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
2Chinese Medicine Department and Integrative Medicine, the Hong Kong Hospital Authority, Hong Kong
3Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of TCM, Hong Kong

Received 4 December 2012; Accepted 26 February 2013

Academic Editor: Aiping Lu

Copyright © 2013 Wendy Wong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. O. Birkeflet, P. Laake, and N. Vøllestad, “Low inter-rater reliability in traditional Chinese medicine for female infertility,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 51–57, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Mist, C. Ritenbaugh, and M. Aickin, “Effects of questionnaire-based diagnosis and training on inter-rater reliability among practitioners of traditional chinese medicine,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 703–709, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. A. O'Brien, E. Abbas, J. Zhang et al., “An investigation into the reliability of Chinese medicine diagnosis according to eight guiding principles and Zang-Fu theory in Australians with hypercholesterolemia,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 259–266, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. T. Hao and J. Q. Fanc, “The introduce and usage of WHOQOL instrument in chinese,” Modern Rehabilitation, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1127–1145, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  5. F.-B. Liu, J.-Q. Fang, Z.-H. Pan et al., “The development of syndrome differential scale of the spleen-stomach diseases used for computer aided expert diagnosis system,” Academic Journal of Sun Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences, vol. 21, no. 4, supplement, pp. 112–115, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  6. Q. Wang, “Classification and diagnosis basis of nine basic constitutions in Chinese medicine,” Journal of Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 1–8, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  7. Q. Wang, “Compiling and application of constitution in Chinese medicine questionnaire,” China Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, supplement, pp. 54–57, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  8. X.-J. Ren and Q. Wang, “Discussion on application of traditional chinese medicine classification standards of health in personal health management,” Chinese Health Service Management, vol. 9, pp. 580–581, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  9. Q. Wang, Y. B. Zhu, H. S. Xue, and S. Li, “Primary compiling of constitution in Chinese medicine questionnaire,” Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 12–14, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  10. Y.-C. Su, “Establishment of traditional Chinese medical constitutional scale and classificatory index (2-1),” Yearbook of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 45–144, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  11. Y.-C. Su, “The evaluation of traditional Chinese medical constitutional scale and classification index,” Yearbook of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 69–144, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  12. C. Wu, “Epidemiological study of 2043 body constitutions based on Chinese medicine theory in jiangsu provision,” Chinese Journal of Basic Medicine in Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 138–140, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  13. Y. C. Su, “The creation of traditional Chinese medical constitutional scale and classification index (2-2),” Yearbook of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 65–152, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  14. C. L. K. Lam, “Validation of the Chinese (HK) version of the two constitution measurement instruments (BCQ and CCMQ) in Hong Kong,” in Third Quarter Chinese Medicine Research Monitoring Report, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  15. Y.-C. Su, L.-L. Chen, J.-D. Lin, J.-S. Lin, Y.-C. Huang, and J.-S. Lai, “BCQ+: a body constitution questionnaire to assess Yang-Xu: part I: establishment of a first final version through a Delphi process,” Forschende Komplementarmedizin, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 327–334, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L.-L. Chen, J.-S. Lin, J.-D. Lin et al., “BCQ+: a body constitution questionnaire to assess Yang-Xu: part II: evaluation of reliability and validity,” Forschende Komplementarmedizin, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 20–27, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J.-D. Lin, L.-L. Chen, J.-S. Lin, C.-H. Chang, Y.-C. Huang, and Y.-C. Su, “BCQ: a body constitution questionnaire to assess Yin-Xu. Part I: establishment of a provisional version through a Delphi process,” Forschende Komplementärmedizin, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 234–241, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  18. J.-S. Lin, L.-L. Chen, J.-D. Lin et al., “BCQ+: a body constitution questionnaire to assess Yang-Xu. Part II: evaluation of reliability and validity,” Forschende Komplementärmedizin, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 285–292, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  19. J.-D. Lin, J.-S. Lin, L.-L. Chen, C.-H. Chang, Y.-C. Huang, and Y.-C. Su, “BCQs: a body constitution questionnaire to assess stasis in traditional Chinese medicine,” European Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. e379–e391, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  20. Y.-B. Zhu, Q. Wang, and O. Hideki, “Evaluation on reliability and validity of the constitution in Chinese medicine questionnaire (CCMQ),” Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medical Science, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 651–654, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  21. State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of the People's Republic of China, “Introduction of Not-yet-ill health promotion project,” Chinese Journal of Management in Chinese Medicine, p. 178, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  22. Q. Wang and Y.-B. Zhu, “Epidemiological investigation of constitutional types of Chinese medicine in general population: base on 21, 948 epidemiological investigation data of nine provinces in China,” China Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 7–12, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  23. W. Wong, C. L. K. Lam, K. F. Leung, and L. Zhao, “Is the content of the Chinese quality of life instrument (ChQOL) really valid in the context of traditional Chinese medicine in Hong Kong?” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 29–36, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Wild, A. Grove, M. Martin et al., “Principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measures: report of the ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation,” Value in Health, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 94–104, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. M. Rosser, “Recent studies using a global approach to measuring illness,” Medical Care, vol. 14, no. 5, supplement, pp. 138–147, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. C. Nunnally and I. H. Bernstein, Psychometric Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 1994.
  27. Y. B. Zhu, Q. Wang, H. S. Xue, and Q. Orikasa, “Preliminary assessment on performance of constitution in Chinese medicine questionnaire,” Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 15–17, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  28. C. L. K. Lam, E. Y. Y. Tse, and B. Gandek, “Is the standard SF-12 Health Survey valid and equivalent for a Chinese population?” Quality of Life Research, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 539–547, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. R. Lynn, “Determination and quantification of content validity,” Nursing Research, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 382–385, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. E. Ware and B. Gandek, “Methods for testing data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability: The IQOLA Project approach,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 945–952, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. A. McHorney and A. R. Tarlov, “Individual-patient monitoring in clinical practice: are available health status surveys adequate?” Quality of Life Research, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 293–307, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Satorra and E. Bentler, “Corrections to test statistics and standard enors in covariance structure analysis,” in Latent Variables Analysis: Applications For Developmental Research, A. von Eye and C. Clogg, Eds., pp. 399–419, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  33. L. T. Hu and P. M. Bentler, “Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives,” Structural Equation Modeling, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–55, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. R. Landis and G. G. Koch, “The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data,” Biometrics, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 159–174, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. B. Terwee, S. D. M. Bot, M. R. de Boer et al., “Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 34–42, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. E. Shrout and J. L. Fleiss, “Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 420–428, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. J. Y. Sung, W. K. Leung, J. Y. L. Ching et al., “Agreements among traditional Chinese medicine practitioners in the diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1205–1210, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus