Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Treatment of Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Recommendations of Recent Evidence-Based Interdisciplinary Guidelines with Special Emphasis on Complementary and Alternative Therapies

Table 1

Levels of evidence according to the Oxford Center of Evidence-Based Medicine [7].

LevelTherapy/prevention, aetiology/harm

1aSR (with homogeneity*) of RCTs
1bIndividual RCT (with narrow Confidence Interval)
1cAll or none
2aSR (with homogeneity*) of cohort studies
2bIndividual cohort study (including low quality RCT; e.g., <80% followup)
2c“Outcomes” research; ecological studies
3aSR (with homogeneity*) of case-control studies
3bIndividual case-control study
4Case-series (and poor quality cohort and case-control studies)
5Expert opinion without explicit critical appraisal, or based on physiology, bench research, or “first principles”

SR: Systematic review; RCT: Randomised controlled trial.

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.