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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 486823, 14 pages
Review Article

History of Bioelectrical Study and the Electrophysiology of the Primo Vascular System

1Biomedical Team, KAIST Institute for Information Technology Convergence, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea
2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705, Republic of Korea
3Impedance Imaging Research Center & Department of Public Administration, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea
4Acupuncture, Moxibustion & Meridian Research Center, Division of Standard Research, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 305-811, Republic of Korea
5Medical Research Division, Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Meridian Research Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseongdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-811, Republic of Korea

Received 22 February 2013; Revised 3 May 2013; Accepted 7 May 2013

Academic Editor: Byung-Cheon Lee

Copyright © 2013 Sang Hyun Park et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Primo vascular system is a new anatomical structure whose research results have reported the possibility of a new circulatory system similar to the blood vascular system and cells. Electrophysiology, which measures and analyzes bioelectrical signals tissues and cells, is an important research area for investigating the function of tissues and cells. The bioelectrical study of the primo vascular system has been reported by using modern techniques since the early 1960s by Bonghan Kim. This paper reviews the research result of the electrophysiological study of the primo vascular system for the discussion of the circulatory function. We hope it would help to study the electrophysiology of the primo vascular system for researchers. This paper will use the following exchangeable expressions: Kyungrak system = Bonghan system = Bonghan circulatory system = primo vascular system = primo system; Bonghan corpuscle = primo node; Bonghan duct = primo vessel. We think that objective descriptions of reviewed papers are more important than unified expressions when citing the papers. That said, this paper will unify the expressions of the primo vascular system.