Table 2: Outcome measures at 4 weeks and 12 weeks (means and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for respective baseline value).

OutcomesAdjusted differences to baseline
(95% CI)
mindful walking
Adjusted differences to baseline
(95% CI) control
(no intervention)
Adjusted means
(95% CI)
mindful walking
Adjusted means
(95% CI) control
(no intervention)
value

At 4 weeks
Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (14 items)**−8.8 (−10.8; −6.8)−1.0 (−2.9; 0.9)24.2 (22.2; 26.2)32.0 (30.1; 33.9)<0.001
Visual analogue scale (0–100 mm)**−24.0 (−31.4; −16.7)−10.4 (−17.5; −3.3)47.0 (39.6; 54.3)60.6 (53.5; 67.7)0.010
SF-36—mental component score*9.1 (6.2; 12.0)1.1 (−1.8; 3.9)43.2 (40.2; 46.1)35.1 (32.3; 38.0)<0.001
SF-36—physical component score*0.1 (−1.7; 1.9)−0.7 (−2.5; 1.0)50.5 (48.8; 52.3)49.7 (48.0; 51.4)0.492
SF-36—vitality scale*12.6 (7.7; 17.5)2.9 (−1.9; 7.7)50.2 (45.3; 55.1)40.5 (35.7; 45.3)0.006
SF-36—physical functioning scale*0.6 (−2.37; 3.6)−3.5 (−6.4; −0.6)86.3 (83.3; 89.3)82.2 (79.3; 85.1)0.054
SF-36—bodily pain scale*4.7 (−2.4; 11.9)−1.3 (−8.2; 5.7)73.2 (66.1; 80.3)67.2 (60.3; 74.2)0.238
SF-36—general health perceptions scale*4.9 (0.4; 9.4)−1.1 (−5.4; 3.3)65.4 (60.9; 69.9)59.4 (55.0; 63.8)0.063
SF-36—physical role functioning scale*11.3 (1.9; 20.8)3.1 (−6.1; 12.3)72.5 (63.0; 81.9)64.2 (55.1; 73.4)0.218
SF-36—emotional role functioning scale*16.2 (4.3; 28.1)−2.2 (−13.8; 9.4)65.3 (53.4; 77.2)46.9 (35.3; 58.5)0.033
SF-36—social role functioning scale*18.8 (12.2; 25.3)4.9 (−1.5; 11.3)74.7 (68.1; 81.2)60.8 (54.5; 67.2)0.004
SF-36—mental health scale*13.3 (9.1; 17.5)2.0 (−2.2; 6.1)63.2 (58.9; 67.4)51.8 (47.7; 56.0)<0.001
At 12 weeks
Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale**−7.2 (−9.4; −5.0)−3.8 (−5.7; −1.7)25.8 (23.6; 28.0)29.2 (27.0; 31.3)0.031
Visual analogue scale**−21.3 (−29.1; −13.5)−18.2 (−25.7; −10.6)49.6 (41.8; 57.5)52.8 (45.2; 60.4)0.562
SF-36—mental component score*7.5 (4.2; 10.8)2.0 (−1.2; 5.2)41.5 (38.2; 44.8)36.02 (32.8; 39.2)0.021
SF-36—physical component score*0.9 (−0.9; 2.7)0.9 (−0.9; 2.7)51.3 (49.5; 53.1)51.3 (49.6; 53.1)0.989
SF-36—vitality scale*11.6 (6.5; 16.7)6.4 (1.4; 11.3)49.2 (44.1; 54.3)43.9 (39.0; 48.9)0.145
SF-36—physical functioning scale*1.2 (−1.7; 4.1)−1.3 (−4.1; 1.5)86.7 (84.0; 89.7)84.4 (81.6; 87.2)0.226
SF-36—bodily pain scale*4.7 (−1.7; 11.1)3.2 (−3.0; 9.4)73.2 (66.8; 79.6)71.7 (65.5; 77.9)0.742
SF-36—general health perceptions scale*5.9 (1.0; 10.8)0.4 (−4.4; 5.2)66.4 (61.5; 71.3)60.9 (56.1; 65.7)0.119
SF-36—physical role functioning scale*13.6 (5.0; 22.2)9.5 (1.1; 17.8)74.8 (66.2; 83.4)70.6 (62.2; 79.0)0.493
SF-36—emotional role functioning scale*18.9 (7.4; 30.4)0.5 (−10.7; 11.7)68.0 (56.5; 79.5)49.6 (38.4; 60.8)0.027
SF-36—social role functioning scale*14.2 (6.5; 22.0)8.9 (1.3; 16.5)70.2 (62.4; 77.9)64.8 (57.2; 72.4)0.336
SF-36—mental health scale*9.2 (4.3; 14.1)2.9 (−2.0; 7.7)59.1 (54.1; 64.0)52.8 (48.0; 57.6)0.073

Abbreviations: *higher values indicating better QoL, **lower values indicating less distress.