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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 503043, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/503043
Research Article

Anthocyanins from Vitis coignetiae Pulliat Inhibit Cancer Invasion and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, but These Effects Can Be Attenuated by Tumor Necrosis Factor in Human Uterine Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells

1Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, 90 Chilam-dong, Jinju 660-702, Republic of Korea
2The Fifth Hospital of Shijizhuang, Shijizhuang 050021, China
3Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-702, Republic of Korea
4Department of Pathology, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-702, Republic of Korea
5Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 660-702, Republic of Korea
6Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Oriental Medicine and Department of Biomaterial Control (BK21 program), Dongeui University Graduate School, Busan 614-052, Republic of Korea
7School of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea
8Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea
9Department of Chemistry, Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea

Received 29 March 2013; Accepted 28 May 2013

Academic Editor: Shrikant Anant

Copyright © 2013 Jing Nan Lu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Recently we have demonstrated that anthocyanins from fruits of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat (AIMs) have anticancer effects. Here, we investigate the effects of AIMs on cell proliferation and invasion as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which have been linked to cancer metastasis in human uterine cervical cancer HeLa cells. AIMs inhibited the invasion of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. AIMs inhibited MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner. AIMs inhibited the motility of HeLa cells in a wound healing test. AIMs still suppressed NF-κB activation induced by TNF. AIMs also inhibited EMT in HeLa cells. AIMs suppressed vimentin, N-cadherin, and β-catenin expression and induced E-cadherin. AIMs also suppressed expression of β-catenin and Snail, which was regulated by GSK-3. These effects of AIMs were also limited in the HeLa cells treated with TNF. In conclusion, this study indicates that AIMs have anticancer effects by suppressing NF-κB-regulated genes and EMT, which relates to suppression of IκBα phosphorylation and GSK-3 activity, respectively. However, the effects of AIMs were attenuated in the TNF-high condition.