503521.fig.001a
(a)
503521.fig.001b
(b)
503521.fig.001c
(c)
503521.fig.001d
(d)
Figure 1: Suppressive effects of 6-shogaol on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The LDL was reacted with copper sulfate (CuSO4), and the amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured to evaluate the levels of oxidized (ox) LDL (a). Amounts of MDA on LDL oxidation to oxLDL were analyzed (b). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to 200 μg/mL oxLDL and a combination of oxLDL and 1, 5, 10, and 30 μM 6-shogaol for 24 hours. Levels of cellular ROS were quantified using flow cytometry (c). NADPH oxidative activity was determined by lucigenin chemiluminescence (d). Each value represents the mean ± s.e.m. for . Symbols * and #, respectively, indicate that the values significantly differ from control and oxLDL-treated groups, .