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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 506389, 7 pages
Research Article

Total and Inorganic Arsenic Contents in Some Edible Zingiberaceous Rhizomes in Thailand

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 447 Sri-Ayutthaya Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
2Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Henri Dunant Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Sri-Ayutthaya Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

Received 26 February 2013; Revised 24 March 2013; Accepted 1 April 2013

Academic Editor: Molvibha Vongsakul

Copyright © 2013 Chomkamon Ubonnuch et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The arsenic accumulation in rhizomes of Zingiberaceous plants was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry interfaced with hydride generation system (HG-AAS). The raw herbal materials, rhizomes, were collected from different regions of Thailand between December 2011 and January 2012. Six well-known Zingiberaceous plants, 16 samples from each and a total of 96 samples, were analyzed Alpinia galanga (Khaa), Boesenbergia rotunda (Kra-chaai), Curcuma longa (Khamin-chan), Curcuma zedoaria (Khamin-oi), Zingiber cassumunar (Plai) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger). Concentrations of total arsenic based on dry weight were , , , , and  ng/g, respectively and inorganic arsenic were , , , , , and  ng/g, respectively. Among these, Plai and Kra-chaai exhibited the highest levels of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic accumulation that remind consumers to be aware of excess consuming of these rhizomes. On the contrary, the lowest value found in Khamin-chan indicating natural dietary supplements and herbal medicines comprising Kamin-chan are safe from arsenic poison. All investigated amounts of total and inorganic arsenic were much lower than limits recommended by Thai Food and Drug Administration.