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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 510461, 8 pages
Research Article

Evidence for the Primo Vascular System above the Epicardia of Rat Hearts

1Ki Primo Research Laboratory, Division of Electrical Engineering, KAIST Institute for Information Technology Convergence, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea
2Pharmacopuncture Medical Research Center, Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute, Seoul 157-200, Republic of Korea
3Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
4Department of Veterinary, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea
5Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-713, Republic of Korea
6Acupuncture, Moxibustion & Meridian Research Group, Medical Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 305-811, Republic of Korea

Received 23 February 2013; Revised 25 June 2013; Accepted 27 June 2013

Academic Editor: M. Isabel Miguel Perez

Copyright © 2013 Ho-Sung Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We for the first time reported evidence for the existence of a novel network, a PVS, abovethe epicardium of the rat heart. (1) We were consecutively able to visualize the PVs and the PNs above the epicardial spaces of five rats’ hearts by using Cr-Hx spraying or injection. (2) Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and toluidine blue staining of the PVs and the PNs showed that they consisted of a basophilic matrix; specifically the PNs contained several mast cells, some of which were degranulating into pericardial space. Also, 4′, 6-diamidino-2 phenylindole (DAPI) images of the PVs and the PNs showed that they contained various kinds of cells. (3) Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) longitudinal image of the PVs showed that the sinuses contained many granules with high-electron-density cores in parallel with putative endothelial cells. (4) TEM images of the PNs demonstrated that they consisted of lumen-containing cells surrounded by fibers and that they had mast cells that were degranulating toward the epicardium of the rat heart. The above data suggest that mast-cells-containing novel network exists above the epicardium of the rat heart.