Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 510461, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/510461
Research Article

Evidence for the Primo Vascular System above the Epicardia of Rat Hearts

1Ki Primo Research Laboratory, Division of Electrical Engineering, KAIST Institute for Information Technology Convergence, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea
2Pharmacopuncture Medical Research Center, Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute, Seoul 157-200, Republic of Korea
3Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
4Department of Veterinary, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea
5Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-713, Republic of Korea
6Acupuncture, Moxibustion & Meridian Research Group, Medical Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 305-811, Republic of Korea

Received 23 February 2013; Revised 25 June 2013; Accepted 27 June 2013

Academic Editor: M. Isabel Miguel Perez

Copyright © 2013 Ho-Sung Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Krishnaswamy, O. Ajitawi, and D. S. Chi, “The human mast cell: an overview,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 315, pp. 13–34, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Ehrlich, Beitrage zur theorie und praxis der histologischen farburg [Thesis], University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, 1878.
  3. H. Matsushima, N. Yamada, H. Matsue, and S. Shimada, “The effects of endothelin-1 on degranulation, cytokine, and growth factor production by skin-derived mast cells,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1910–1919, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. T. Kovanen, “Mast cells in human fatty streaks and atheromas: implications for intimal lipid accumulation,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 281–286, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. Kitamura, M. Shimada, K. Hatanaka, and Y. Miyano, “Development of mast cells from grafted bone marrow cells in irradiated mice,” Nature, vol. 268, no. 5619, pp. 442–443, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. Edmunds and R. J. T. Pennington, “Mast cell origin of “myofibrillar protease” of rat skeletal and heart muscle,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 661, no. 1, pp. 28–31, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Zhang, G. Ding, X. Shen et al., “Role of mast cells in acupuncture effect: a pilot study,” Explore, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 170–177, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Z. Zhu and R. Xu, “Morphometric observation on the mast cells under the acupuncture meridian lines,” Acupuncture Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 157–158, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T.-F. He and Y.-F. Chen, “Advances in studies on the correlation between acupuncture-moxibustion treatment and mast cells,” Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 84–87, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T.-F. He, S.-H. Zhang, L.-B. Li, W.-J. Yang, J. Zhu, and Y.-F. Chen, “Effects of acupuncture on the number and degranulation ratio of mast cells and expression of tryptase in synovium of rats with adjuvant arthritis,” Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 670–677, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. F. Kagitani, S. Uchida, and H. Hotta, “Afferent nerve fibers and acupuncture,” Autonomic Neuroscience, vol. 157, no. 1-2, pp. 2–8, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. I. Tsunikov, R. S. Megdiatov, and I. V. Grachev, “Acupuncture therapy of neuralgia of the trigeminal nerve,” Sovetskaya Meditsina, no. 9, pp. 102–104, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Toda, “Effect of acupuncture on afferent nerve,” Kokubyo Gakkai Zasshi, vol. 48, no. 2, p. 251, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. M. Langevin and J. A. Yandow, “Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes,” Anatomical Record, vol. 269, no. 6, pp. 257–265, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. M. Langevin, D. L. Churchill, J. Wu et al., “Evidence of connective tissue involvement in acupuncture,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 872–874, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. M. Langevin, D. L. Churchill, and M. J. Cipolla, “Mechanical signaling through connective tissue: a mechanism for the therapeutic effect of acupuncture,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 2275–2282, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. H. Kim, “The Kyungrak system,” Journal of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, no. 6, pp. 1–38, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  18. B.-C. Lee, J. S. Yoo, V. Ogay et al., “Electron microscopic study of novel threadlike structures on the surfaces of mammalian organs,” Microscopy Research and Technique, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 34–43, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. S. Kwon, C. M. Ha, S. Yu et al., “Microscopic nodes and ducts inside lymphatics and on the surface of internal organs are rich in granulocytes and secretory granules,” Cytokine, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 587–592, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  20. W. R. Sperr, H. C. Bankl, G. Mundigler et al., “The human cardiac mast cell: localization, isolation, phenotype, and functional characterization,” Blood, vol. 84, no. 11, pp. 3876–3884, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Hara, K. Ono, M.-W. Hwang et al., “Evidence for a role of mast cells in the evolution to congestive heart failure,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 195, no. 3, pp. 375–381, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. J. Mackins, S. Kano, N. Seyedi et al., “Cardiac mast cell-derived renin promotes local angiotensin formation, norepinephrine release, and arrhythmias in ischemia/reperfusion,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 116, no. 4, pp. 1063–1070, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. S. Lee and B. C. Lee, “Visualization of the network of primo vessels and primo nodes above the pia mater of the brain and spine of rats by using Alcian blue,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 218–225, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  24. H. Huh, B. C. Lee, S. H. Park et al., “Composition of the extracellular matrix at lymphatic novel threadlike structure: is it keratin?” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 195631, 6 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. B. C. Lee, “A hypothesis for a hidden circulation system with cell-free DNA molecules, microvesicles and microparticles: the 5 primo vascular system (Bonghan system), a putative acupuncture meridian system,” Journal of Extracellular Vesicles, vol. 2, Article ID 20826, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. B. C. Lee, J. W. Yoon, S. H. Park, and S. J. Yoon, “Primo Vascular System, The system of circulation and interacting extracellular DNA Microvesicles,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. In press.
  27. V. Patella, I. Marinò, E. Arbustini et al., “Stem cell factor in mast cells and increased mast cell density in idiopathic and ischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation, vol. 97, no. 10, pp. 971–978, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. Norrby, “Mast cells and angiogenesis: review article,” APMIS, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 355–371, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. C. Reid, R. B. Silver, and R. Levi, “Renin: at the heart of the mast cell,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 217, no. 1, pp. 123–140, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Williams, K. Mueller, and M. W. Cornwall, “Effect of acupuncture-point stimulation on diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects: a preliminary study,” Physical Therapy, vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 523–529, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Krokowski, J. Hoch, A. C. Feller, H.-W. Bernd, C. Thorns, and S. Krueger, “Basal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation arising in a scar: a case report,” Dermatology Online Journal, vol. 15, no. 10, article 4, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Kim, V. Ogay, B.-C. Lee et al., “Catecholamine-producing novel endocrine organ: bonghan system,” Medical Acupuncture, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 97–102, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. S. Lee, W. H. Park, A. R. Je, H. S. Kweon, and B. C. Lee, “Evidence for novel structures (primo vessels and primo nodes) floating in the venous sinuses of rat brains,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 522, no. 2, pp. 98–102, 2012. View at Google Scholar