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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 514049, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/514049
Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory and Neuroprotective Effects of Constituents Isolated from Rhodiola rosea

1Department of Neuroscience and Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 158-710, Republic of Korea
2National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, Thad Cochran Research Center, University of Mississippi, MS 38677-1848, USA

Received 26 September 2012; Revised 2 January 2013; Accepted 27 March 2013

Academic Editor: Wei-Chiang Lin

Copyright © 2013 Yeonju Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

To determine the biological activity of Rhodiola rosea, the protein expression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines was measured after the activation of murine microglial BV2 cells by LPS under the exposure of constituents of Rhodiola rosea: crude extract, rosin, rosarin, and salidroside (each 1–50 μg/mL). The LPS-induced expression of iNOS and cytokines in BV2 cells was suppressed by the constituents of Rhodiola rosea in a concentration-dependent manner. Also the expression of the proinflammatory factors iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the kidney and prefrontal cortex of brain in mice was suppressed by the oral administration of Rhodiola rosea crude extract (500 mg/kg). To determine the neuroprotective effect of constituents of Rhodiola rosea, neuronal cells were activated by L-glutamate, and neurotoxicity was analyzed. The L-glutamate-induced neurotoxicity was suppressed by the treatment with rosin but not by rosarin. The level of phosphorylated MAPK, pJNK, and pp38 was increased by L-glutamate treatment but decreased by the treatment with rosin and salidroside. These results indicate that Rhodiola rosea may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammation and neurodegenerative disease.